Activities, B., Literacies, N., & Proficiency, A. L. (2008). “Bridging Activities,” New Media Literacies, and Advanced Foreign Language Proficiency. CALICO Journal, 25(3), 558–572.

Agarwal, R., & Prasad, J. (1998). A Conceptual and Operational Definition of Personal Innovativeness in the Domain of Information Technology. Information Systems Research, 9(2), 204–215.

Aguado, K. (2002). Formelhafte Sequenzen und ihre Funktionen für den L2- Erwerb. Zeitschrift Für Angewandte Linguistik, 37, 27–49.

Agudo, J. E., Sanchez, H., Holguin, M. M., & & Tello, D. (2007). Adaptive computer games for second language learning in early childhood. International Online Conference on Second and Foriegn Langauge Teaching and Research, 1–14.

Al-Alwan, A., Asassfeh, S., & Al-Shboul, Y. (2013). EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension and Awareness of Metacognitive Strategies: How Are They Related? International Education Studies, 6(9), 1–9.

Alderson, J. C., Clapham, C., & Steel, D. (1997). Metalinguistic knowledge, language aptitude and language proficiency. Language Teaching Research, 1(2), 93–121.

Aleven, V. a. W. M. M., & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). An effective metacognitive strategy: learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based Cognitive Tutor. Cognitive Science, 26(2), 147–179.

Anderson, J. C. (1990). Testing Reading Comprehension Skills (Part 1). Reading in a Foreign Language, 6(2), 425–438.

Anderson, J., & Rainie, L. (2012). Gamification and the Internet: Experts Expect Game Layers to Expand in the Future, with Positive and Negative Results. Games for Health Journal, 1(4), 299–302.

Anderson, N. J. (2003). Scrolling, Clicking, and Reading English: Online Rreading Strategies in a Second/Foreign Language. The Reading Matrix, 116, 1–33.

Anderson, N. J. (2005). L2 Learning Strategies. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 757–772). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Annetta, L. A., Holmes, S. Y., Vallett, D., Fee, M., Cheng, R., & Lamb, R. (2013). Cognitive Aspects of Creativity: Science Learning Through Serious Educational Games. In M. B. Gregerson, J. C. Kaufman, & H. T. Snyder (Eds.), Teaching Creatively and Teaching Creativity (pp. 53–62). New York, NY: Springer New York.

Anyaegbu, R., Ting, W., & Li, Y. (2012). SERIOUS GAME MOTIVATION IN AN EFL CLASSROOM IN CHINESE. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11(1), 154–164.

Apple, M. (2011). Autonomy as a predictor of English proficiency. OnCUE Journal, 4(3), 191–216.

Ardasheva, Y., & Tretter, T. R. (2013). Strategy Inventory for Language Learning-ELL Student Form: Testing for Factorial Validity. The Modern Language Journal, 97(2), 474–489.

Arnab, S., Berta, R., Earp, J., Freitas, S. De, & Popescu, M. (2012). Framing the Adoption of Serious Games in Formal Education. The Electronic Journal of E-Learning Provides Perspectives on Topics Relevant to the Study, Implementation and Management of E-Learning Initiatives, 10(2), 159–171.

Arnab, S., Petridis, P., Dunwell, I., & De, S. (2011). Enhancing Learning in Distributed Virtual Worlds through Touch: A Browser-based Architecture for Haptic Interaction. In Serious Games and Edutainment Applications (pp. 149–167). London: Springer London.

Arnab, S., Petridis, P., Dunwell, I., & Freitas, S. De. (2011). Tactile Interaction in an Ancient World on a Web Browser. International Journal of Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications, 3, 687–695.

Arnold, P., Kilian, L., Thillosen, A., & Zimmer, G. M. (2009). Handbuch E-Learning. (A. Hohenstein & K. Wilbers, Eds.) (p. 3329). Köln: Deutscher Wirtschaftsdienst.

Askraba, V. (2008). Mobile Assisted Language Learning and its Impact on Student Motivation and Acquisition. MNetComp Thesis, Monash University, Australia.

Awareness and Attitude towards serious games BULGARIA SURVEY RESULTS 2011 Target groups. (2011).

Azadegan, A. (1977). Confirmed Workshop : Cooperative game design patterns (pp. 1–2).

Bachmair, B., Risch, M., Friedrich, K., & Mayer, K. (2011). Eckpunkte einer Didaktik des mobilen Lernens. MedienPädagogik - Zeitschrift Für Theorie Und Praxis Der Medienbildung Theorie Und Praxis Der Medienbildung, 19, 1–38.

Baek, Y. K. (2008). What Hinders Teachers in Using Computer and Video Games in the Classroom? Exploring Factors Inhibiting the Uptake of Computer and Video Games. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(6), 665–671.

Bailey, R. L., Wise, K., Bolls, P. D., & Leshner, G. (2008). The effect of avatar customization on children’s cognitive and emotional responses to branded online games. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, 45(1), 57.

Ballou, K. (2009). Language learner experiences in an online virtual world. The JALT CALL Journal, 5(2), 61–70.

Banos, R., Cebolla, A., Frias, A., Etchemendy, E., Botella, C., Garcia Palacios, A., & Alcaniz, M. (2009). Etiobe Mates: A Serious Game Platform to Improve the Learning of  Nutritional Knowledge in Children. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, 12(5), 586–587.

Banos, R. M., Cebolla, A., Oliver, E., Alcaniz, M., & Botella, C. (2013). Efficacy and acceptability of an Internet platform to improve the learning of nutritional knowledge in children: the ETIOBE mates. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH, 28(2), 234–248.

Barab, S. a., Gresalfi, M., & Ingram-Goble, A. (2010). Transformational Play: Using Games to Position Person, Content, and Context. Educational Researcher, 39(7), 525–536.

Barbero, T., Damascelli, A. T., & Vittoz, M. (2001). Integrating the Common European Framework of Reference ( CEFR ) with CLIL. (D. Marsh, M. Peeter, D. Wolff, R. Aliaga, T. Asikainen, M. J. Frigols-Martin, … G. Langé, Eds.)CLIL Practice: Perspectives from the Field. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.

Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2013). Developing L2 Pragmatics. Language Learning, 63(1), 68–86.

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do Language Learners Recognize Pragmatic Violations? Pragmatic versus Grammatical Awareness in Instructed L2 Learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 233–259.

Barnes, G. V. (2000). Self-Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness. Journal of String Research, 1.

Bartels, S., & Jochem, C. (2011). Gaming in der Bibliothek – Ein Serious-Game-Konzept zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz. Hamburg University of Applied Science.

Bartholomew, K. L., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., & Gottlieb, N. H. (2006). Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach. Planning health promotion programs An intervention mapping approach (1st ed., p. 767). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Basharina, O. K. (2007). AN ACTIVITY THEORY PERSPECTIVE ON STUDENT-REPORTED CONTRADICTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL TELECOLLABORATION. Language Learning & Technology, 11(2), 82–103.

Batson, L., & Feinberg, S. (2006). Game designs that enhance motivation and learning for teenagers. Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education, 5, 34–43.

Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2009). Understanding teacher identity: an overview of issues in the literature and implications for teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(2), 175–189.

Becker, K. (2005). How Are Games Educational ? Learning Theories Embodied in Games. Changing Views: Worlds in Play, 1–6.

Becker, K. (2007). Digital game-based learning once removed: Teaching teachers. BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 38(3), 478–488.

Becker, K., & Jacobsen, D. M. (2005). Games for Learning : Are Schools Ready for What’s To Come ? Changing Views: Worlds in Play, 1–9.

Bediones, C., Macalinao, C., McDowd, K. B., Schenke, K., Tran, C., & Conley, A. (2013). Are We Washing Poop?: Unintended Consequenzes in Educational Game Design. GLS 9.0, 28–32.

Behm-Morawitz, E. (2013). Self-Presence and the Effects of the Avatar on Health and Appearance. Games for Health Journal, 2(1), 50–52.

Beissel-Durrant, G. (2004). A Typology of Research Methods Within the Social Sciences (No. SO17 1BJ) (pp. 1–22). Southamton.

Bellotti, F., Berta, R., Gloria, A. De, & Margarone, M. (2002). User Testing a Hypermedia Tour Guide. Pervasive Computing, 1(2), 33–41.

Bellotti, F., Kapralos, B., Lee, K., Moreno-Ger, P., & Berta, R. (2013). Assessment in and of Serious Games: An Overview. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2013(User Assessment in Serious Games and Technology-Enhanced Learning), 1–11.

Bellotti, F., Mortara, M., & Catalona, C. E. (2010). Confirmed Lecture : Learning cultural heritage through serious games . Why, where and how?, (October).

Belz, J. a., & Reinhardt, J. (2004). Aspects of advanced foreign language proficiency: Internet-mediated German language play. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(3), 324–362.

Bente, G., & Breuer, J. (2010). Why so serious? On the Relation of Serious Games and Learning. Eludamos - Journal for Computer Game Culture, 4(1), 7–24.

Berger, F., & Marbach, A. (2009). Erkundungen im Spannungsfeld von Pädagogik , Spielspass und technischer Machbarkeit. MedienPädagogik, 15/16(Computerspiele und Videogames in formellen und informellen Bildungskontexten), 1–15.

Bethea, T. C., Berry, D., Maloney, A. E., & Sikich, L. (2012). Pilot Study of an Active Screen Time Game Correlates with Improved Physical Fitness in Minority Elementary School Youth. Games for Health Journal, 1(1), 29–36.

Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices (2nd ed., p. 156). Tampa, Florida, USA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Biddiss, E., & Irwin, J. (2010). Active Video Games to Promote Physical Activity in Children and Youth A Systematic Review. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(7), 664–672.

Bizzocchi, Jim; Paras, B. (2005). Game, motivation, and effective learning: An integrated model for educational game design. Vancouver, Canada: DiGRA 2005: Changing Views: Worlds in Play, 2005 International Conference.

Blumberg, F. C. (2011). Ramifications of Video Game Play for Academic Learning and Cognitive Skill Acquisition: Introduction. CHILD DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES, 5(2), 73–74.

Blumberg, F. C., & Altschuler, E. (2011). From the Playroom to the Classroom: Children’s Views of Video Game Play and Academic Learning. Child Development Perspectives, 5(2), 99–103.

Blumberg Randall, J. D., F. C. (n.d.). What do children and adolescents say they do during video game play? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(2), 82–88.

Blunt, R., & Ph, D. (n.d.). Does Game-Based Learning Work ? Results from Three Recent Studies Does Game-Based Learning Work ? Results from Three Recent Studies, 1–11.

Bokyeong, K., & Hyungsung, P. (2009). Not just fun , but serious strategies : Computers & Education, 52(4), 800–810.

Bonanno, P., & Kommers, P. a. M. (2007). Exploring the influence of gender and gaming competence on attitudes towards using instructional games. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(1), 97–109.

Bonk, C. J., & Dennen, V. P. (2005). Massive Multiplayer Online Gaming: A Research Framework for Military Training and Education (pp. 1–60). Washington D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness.

Borg, S. (1999). Studying teacher cognition in second language grammar teaching. System, 27(1), 19–31.

Borg, S. (1999). The Use of Grammatical Terminology in the Second Language Classroom : A Qualitative Study of Teachers ’ Practices and Cognitions. Oxford Universtiy Press, 20(1), 95–126.

Borg, S. (2003a). Teacher Cognition in Grammar Teaching: A Literature Review. Language Awareness, 12(2), 96–108.

Borg, S. (2003b). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36(2), 81–109.

Bösche, W., & Kattner, F. (2011). Fear of (Serious) Digital Games and Game-Based Learning? International Journal of Game-Based Learning, 1(3), 1–15.

Bourgonjon, J., De Grove, F., De Smet, C., Van Looy, J., Soetaert, R., & Valcke, M. (2013). Acceptance of game-based learning by secondary school teachers. Computers & Education, 67, 21–35.

Bourgonjon, J., De Grove, F., De Smet, C., Van Looy, J., Soetaert, R., & Valcke, M. (2013). Acceptance of game-based learning by secondary school teachers. Computers & Education, 67, 21–35.

Bourgonjon, J., Rutten, K., Soetaert, R., & Valcke, M. (2011). From Counter-Strike to Counter-Statement: using Burke’s pentad as a tool for analysing video games. Digital Creativity.

Bourgonjon, J., Valcke, M., Soetaert, R., de Wever, B., & Schellens, T. (2011). Parental acceptance of digital game-based learning. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1434–1444.

Bourgonjon, J., Valcke, M., Soetaert, R., & Schellens, T. (2009). Exploring the Acceptance of Video Games in the Classroom by Secondary School Students (pp. 651–658). Ghent.

Bourgonjon, J., Valcke, M., Soetaert, R., & Schellens, T. (2010). Students’ perceptions about the use of video games in the classroom. Computers & Education, 54(4), 1145–1156.

Boyan, A., & Sherry, J. L. (2011a). The Challenge in Creating Games for Education: Aligning Mental Models With Game Models. Child Development Perspectives, 5, 82–87.

Boyan, A., & Sherry, J. L. (2011b). The Challenge in Creating Games for Education: Aligning Mental Models With Game Models. CHILD DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES, 5(2), 82–87.

Brand, J. E., & Knight, S. J. (2003). The diverse worlds project : narrative , style , characters and physical world in popular computer and video games. ePublications@bond (pp. 1–45).

Brandt, P., Dietrich, R.-A., & Schön, G. (1999). Sprachwissenschaft : ein roter Faden für das Studium der deutschen Sprache. Köln: Böhlau.

Breuer, J. (2010). Spielend lernen? Eine Bestandsaufnahme zum (Digital) Game-Based Learning. In LfM-Dokumentation (Vol. 41, p. 68). Düsseldorf: Landesanstalt für Medien Nordrhein-Westfalen.

Breuer, J. (2012). Broccoli-coated chocolate? The educational potential of entertainment games. In W. Kaminski & M. Lorber (Eds.), Gamebased Learning (pp. 87–96). München: Kopead.

Breuer, J., Festl, R., & Quandt, T. (2010). Spielen und Leben in virtuellen Welten. Forschungsergebnisse zur Nutzung von Online-Games. In W. Kaminski & M. Lorber (Eds.), Computerspiele: Medien und mehr (pp. 147–172). München: Kopaed.

British Nutrition Foundation. (n.d.). The European Food Framework.

Brom, C., Preuss, M., & Klement, D. (2011). Are educational computer micro-games engaging and effective for knowledge acquisition at high-schools? A quasi-experimental study. Computers & Education, 57(3), 1971–1988.

Brom, C., Sisler, V., & Slavik, R. (2010). Implementing digital game-based learning in schools: augmented learning environment of “Europe 2045.” MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS, 16(1, SI), 23–41.

Brooks, N. (1962). STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS AND SYSTEMATIC COMPOSITION TEACHING TO STUDENTS OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE. Language Learning, 12(3), 185–194.

Brown, D. (2006). Playing to win: Video games and the fight against obesity. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION, 106(2), 188–189.

Brown, K., Arnab, S., Bayley, J., Newby, K., Joshi, P., Judd, B., … Clarke, S. (2012). Tackling sensitive issues using a game-based environment: serious game for relationships and sex education (RSE). Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 181, 165–171.

Brox, E., Fernandez-Luque, L., & Tollefsen, T. (2011). Healthy Gaming - Video Game Design to promote Health. APPLIED CLINICAL INFORMATICS, 2(2), 128–142.

Bruckman, A. (1999). Can Educational Be Fun? (p. 5). San Jose.

Brüggen-Freye, C. (2014). Kassen nutzen Fitness-Apps zur Datensammlung. DIE WELT.

Brumfit, C. J. (1977). The Teaching of Advanced Reading Skills in Foreign Languages, with Particular References to English as a Foreign Language. Language Teaching, 10(02), 73.

Bruton, A. (2007). Description or prescription for task-based instruction? A reply to Littlewood. Asian EFL Journal, 9(1), 227–235.

Buday, R., Baranowski, T., & Thompson, D. (2012). Fun and Games and Boredom. Games for Health Journal, 1(4), 257–261.

Buller, M. K., Kane, I. L., Edwards, E. J., Giese, B. S., Shane, J. H., Dunn, A. L., … Buller, D. B. (2008). Use and effects of three online nutrition education games promoting  fruits and vegetables. ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, 35(1), S61.

Bunke, H., Ostermann, S., & Berndt, E.-B. (2005). Freies ZIMmer. Technologie- und Lernkulturen im «Zentrum für Interaktion mit Digitalen Medien» (ZIM). MedienPädagogik, 10, 1–9.

Burke, B. M., Dungun, M., Ngefac, A., Tang, E., & Yusuf, H. (2011). Journal of Language Teaching and Research (Vol. 2, pp. 1–292).

Burns, J. M., Webb, M., Durkin, L. A., & Hickie, I. B. (2010). Reach Out Central: a serious game designed to engage young men to improve mental health and wellbeing. MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 192(11), 27–30.

Burry-Stock, J. A., & Oxford, R. L. (1995). Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). System, 23(1), 1–23.

Burston, J. (2013). MOBILE-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING : A SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF IMPLEMENTATION STUDIES 1994 – 2012. Language Learning & Technology, 17(3), 157–225.

Bush, M. D. (2008). Computer-Assisted Language Learning: From Vision to Reality? CALICO Journal, 25(3), 443–470.

Byrnes, H. (2005). Second and Foreign Language Pedagogy Heidi Byrnes Georgetown University On the occasion of this 30 (pp. 1–15). Georgetown.

Caillois, R. (2001). Man, play, and games (pp. 1–208). Urbana: Univ. of Illinois.

Carrell, P. L. (1989). Metacognitive Awareness and Second Language Reading. The Modern Language Journal, 73(2), 121.

Chai, C. S., Hwee, J., & Koh, L. (2012). Examining preservice teachers ’ perceived knowledge of TPACK and cyberwellness through structural equation modeling. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(6), 1000–1019.

Chai, C. S., Hwee, J., Koh, L., & Tsai, C.-C. (2010). Facilitating Preservice Teachers ’ Development of Technological , Pedagogical , and Content Knowledge ( TPACK ). Educational Technology & Society, 13(2010), 63–73.

Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in Language Learning Strategy Research and Teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1(1), 14–26.

Chamot, A. U. (2005). LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: CURRENT ISSUES AND RESEARCH. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25(6), 112–130.

Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 13–22.

Chang, M., & Lehman, J. D. (2002). Learning Foreign Language through an Interactive Multimedia Program: An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Relevance Component of the ARCS Model. CALICO Journal, 20(1), 81–98.

Chang, M., & Lin, M. (2013). Strategy-oriented web-based English instruction – A meta-analysis. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(2), 203–216.

Chapelle, C. A. (2009). The Relationship Between Second Language Acquisition Theory and Computer-Assisted Language Learning. The Modern Langauge Journal, 93(Supplement s1), 741–753.

Chen, H.-R., Su, C.-L., & Fang, J.-F. (2012). Teacher acceptance of digital game-based learning instruction in elementary schools in Taiwan. TECHNICS TECHNOLOGIES EDUCATION MANAGEMENT-TTEM, 7(4), 1663–1671.

Chen, J. (2007). Flow in games (and everything else). Communications of the ACM, 50(4), 31.

Chen, J. (2008). Flow in Games.

Chen, M. J. (2006). Flow in Games. Jenovachen.Com, 20.

Chen, X.-B. (2013). TABLETS FOR INFORMAL LANGUAGE LEARNING: STUDENT USAGE AND ATTITUDES. Language Learning & Technology, 17(1), 20–36.

Chen, Y.-L. (2008). A mixed-method study of EFL teachers’ Internet use in language instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(4), 1015–1028.

Cheng, H.-F., & Dörnyei, Z. (2007). The Use of Motivational Strategies in Language Instruction: The Case of EFL Teaching in Taiwan. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 153–174.

Cheng, Y.-M., Kuo, S.-H., Lou, S.-J., & Shih, R.-C. (2012). THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN ONLINE COMPETITIVE GAME-BASED LEARNING SYSTEM FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. TURKISH ONLINE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 11(2), 214–227.

Chik, A. (2012). Digital Gameplay for Autonomous Foreign Language Learning: Gamers’ and Language Teachers' Perspectives. In H. Reinders (Ed.), Digital Games in Language Learning and Teaching (pp. 95–114). Palgrave Macmillan.

Chiu, Y., Kao, C., & Reynolds, B. L. (2012). The relative effectiveness of digital game-based learning types in English as a foreign language setting: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(4), E104–E107.

Clarke, S., Arnab, S., Dunwell, I., & Brown, K. (2012). PR:EPARe: A Game-Based Approach to Relationship Guidance for Adolescents. Procedia Computer Science, 15, 38–44.

Clement, R., & Dörnyei, Z. (2001). MOTIVATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING DIFFERENT TARGET LANGUAGES: RESULTS OF A NATIONWIDE SURVEY (pp. 399–432).

CLIL across contexts : A scaffolding framework for CLIL teacher education. (n.d.).

Cobb, P., Confrey, J., DiSessa, A., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design Experiments in Educational Research. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 9–13.

Cohen, A. D. (1996). SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND USE STRATEGIES : CLARIFYING THE ISSUES. Symposium on Strategies of Language Learning and Use (pp. 1–26). Minneapolis: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Cohen, A. D., & Macaro, E. (2007a). Bridging the Gap Between Psychological and Sociocultural Perspectives on L2 Learner Strategies. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language Learner Strategies: 30 Years of Research and Practice (pp. 47–68). Oxford University Press.

Cohen, A. D., & Macaro, E. (2007b). Language Learner Strategies: Thirty Years of Research and Practice. (A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro, Eds.) (p. 336). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Colatrella, C. (2012). Review of `Recoding Gender : Women’s Changing Participation in Computing’ by Janet Abbate Reviewed by. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 5(1), 69–73.

Collentine, K. (2011). LEARNER AUTONOMY IN A TASK-BASED 3D WORLD AND PRODUCTION. Language Learning & Technology, 15(3), 50–67.

Colpaert, J. (2006). Language Teaching and Learning. CALICO Journal, 23(3), 21.

Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E. A., MacArthur, E., Hainey, T., & Boyle, J. M. (2012). A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, 59(2), 661–686.

Connolly, T. M., Boyle, L., & Hainey, T. (2011). Game and Learning Alliance (Vol. 1, pp. 1–72).

Content and Language Integrated Learning ( CLIL ) at School in Europe. (n.d.).

Cooke-Plagwitz, J. (2008). New Directions in CALL : An Objective Introduction to Second Life. CALICO Journal, 25(3), 547–557.

Cornillie, F., Clarebout, G., & Desmet, P. (2012). Between learning and playing? Exploring learners’ perceptions of corrective feedback in an immersive game for English pragmatics. ReCALL, 24(03), 257–278.

Cornillie, F., Thorne, S. L., & Desmet, P. (2012). ReCALL special issue: Digital games for language learning: challenges and opportunities. ReCALL, 24(03), 243–256.

Council of Europe. (2001). THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES : LEARNING, TEACHING, ASSESSMENT. Council of Europe (pp. 1–273). Strasburg.

Cousin, G. (2006). An introduction to threshold concepts. Planet, (17), 4–5.

Coyle, D. (2001). Content and Language Integrated Learning Motivating Learners and Teachers Do Coyle University Nottingham, 1–18.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety (p. 272). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass Wiley.

Csiz, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (2012). How to Design and Analyze Surveys in Second Language Acquisition Research. In Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition: A Practical Guide (pp. 74–94). Chichester, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Csize, K. (2005). Language Learners ’ Motivational Profiles and Their Motivated Learning Behavior. Language Learning, 55(4), 613–659.

Csizér, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The Internal Structure of Language Learning Motivation and Its Relationship with Language Choice and Learning Effort. The Modern Language Journal, 89(1), 19–36.

Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines : the classroom use of technology since 1920 (p. 134). New York: Teachers College Press.

D’Souza, K. R., Dutton, G. R., & Blackburn, M. (2010). PILOT STUDY EXAMINING DANCE-BASED VIDEO GAMES TO PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG CHILDREN IN A RURAL SCHOOL-BASED SETTING. ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, 39(1), 58.

Daggett, K. M. (2010). Immersion through technology by. Iowa State University.

De Freitas, S. (n.d.). Learning in Immersive worlds A review of game-based learning Prepared for the JISC e-Learning Programme.

De Freitas, S., & Dunwell, I. (2005). Understanding the representational dimension of learning : The implications of interactivity , immersion and fidelity on the development of serious games. In Interactive and Digital Media for Education in Virtual Learning Environments (pp. 71–90). Nova Science Publishers.

DeHaan, J. (2013). Video Games and Second Language Acquisition: Six Genre Case Studies. (J. DeHaan, Ed.) (p. 89). Common Ground Publishing.

Demetrovics, Z., Urban, R., Nagygyoergy, K., Farkas, J., Zilahy, D., Mervo, B., … Harmath, E. (2011). Why do you play? The development of the motives for online gaming questionnaire (MOGQ). BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS, 43(3, SI), 814–825.

Denman, J., Schooten, E. Van, & Graaff, R. De. (2013). CLIL Research Network 2013 (p. 20). Rotterdam; Utrecht.

Derry, J. S. (1996). Cognitive schema theory in the constructivist debate. Educational Psychologist, 31(3/4), 163–174.

DeShazo, J., Harris, L., & Pratt, W. (2010). Effective Intervention or Child’s Play? A Review of Video Games for Diabetes Education. DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 12(10), 815–822.

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness : Defining “ Gamification .” In MindTrek ’11 - Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference (p. 7). Tampere, Finland: http://85.214.46.140/niklas/bach/MindTrek_Gamification_PrinterReady_1108....

Deutschen Instituts für Vertrauen und Sicherheit im Internet. (2014). Kinder, Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene in der digitalen Welt (p. 179). Hamburg.

Dickey, M. D. (2006). Game design and learning: a conjectural analysis of how massively multiple online role-playing games (MMORPGs) foster intrinsic motivation. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(3), 253–273.

Dickey, M. D. (2006). Game design narrative for learning: Appropriating adventure game design narrative devices and techniques for the design of interactive learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(3), 245–263.

Dilk, A. (2005). Der Lehrer in der Westentasche - Mobile Learning ist der neueste Trend im elektronischen Lernen. changeX - Wandel in Wirtschaft Und Gesellschaft.

Dixon, R., Maddison, R., Mhurchu, C. N., Jull, A., Meagher-Lundberg, P., & Widdowson, D. (2010). Parents’ and children’s perceptions of active video games: a focus group study. JOURNAL OF CHILD HEALTH CARE, 14(2), 189–199.

Dixon, R., Maddison, R., Ni Mhurchu, C., Jull, A., Meagher-Lundberg, P., & Widdowson, D. (2010). Parents’ and children's perceptions of active video games: a focus group study. Journal of Child Health Care, 14(2), 189–99.

Djaouti, D. (2011). Serious Game Design Considérations théoriques et techniques sur la création de jeux vidéo à vocation utilitaire. Université de Toulouse.

Djaouti, D., Alvarez, J., Jessel, J., & Rampnoux, O. (2011). Origins of Serious Games. In M. Ma, A. Oikonomou, & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Serious Games and Edutainment Applications (pp. 25–43). Springer London.

Djaouti, D., Alvarez, J., & Jessel, J.-P. (2011). Classifying Serious Games : the G / P / S model. In Handbook of Research on Improving Learning and Motivation through Educational Games: Multidisciplinary Approaches (pp. 118–136). Toulouse, France: IGI Global.

Dobson, M., Ha, D., Mulligan, D., & Ciavarro, C. (2005). From real-world data to game world experience : Social analysis methods for developing plausible & engaging learning games . (pp. 1–14).

Dondlinger, M. J. (2007). Educational Video Game Design : A Review of the Literature. Journal of Applied Educational Technology, 4(1), 21–31.

Dooly, M., & O’Dowd, R. (2012). Researching Online Foreign Language Interaction and Exchange: Theories, Methods and Challenges. (M. A. D. Owenby & R. O’Dow, Eds.) (Vol. 30, p. 384). Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien: Peter Lang.

Döring, N., & Kleeberg, N. (2006). Mobiles Lernen in der Schule. Entwicklungs- und Forschungsstand. Unterrichtswissenschaft - Zeitschrift Für Lernforschung, 34(1), 70–72.

Dormann, C., & Biddle, R. (2009). A Review of Humor for Computer Games: Play, Laugh and More. Simulation & Gaming, 40(6), 802–824.

Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do Language Learners Recognize Pragmatic Violations? Pragmatic Versus Grammatical Awareness in Instructed L2 Learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 233–259.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). The motivational basis of language learning tasks *. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual Differences and Instructed Language Learning (pp. 137–158).

Dörnyei, Z. (2003a). Attitudes, Orientations, and Motivations in Language Learning: Advances in Theory, Research, and Applications. Language Learning, 53(S1), 3–32.

Dörnyei, Z. (2003b). Attitudes, Orientations, and Motivations in Language Learning: Advances in Theory, Research, and Applications. Language Learning, 53(S1), 3–32.

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research Methods in Applied Linguistics (pp. 1–336). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Dörnyei, Z. (2009). Individual Differences: Interplay of Learner Characteristics and Learning Environment. Language Learning, 59(1), 230–248.

Dörnyei, Z. (2010). Researching motivation : from integrativeness to the ideal L2 self. In Introducing applied linguistics: Concepts and skills (pp. 74–83). London: Routledge.

Dörnyei, Z., & Tseng, W. (2010). Motivational Processing In Interactional Tasks. In Multiple Perspectives on Interaction: Second Language Research in Honor of Susan M. Gass (pp. 117–134). New York: Routledge.

Drotner, K., & Livingstone, S. (2008). The International Handbook of Children, Media, and Culture (p. 560). Sage Pubn Inc.

Dubbels, B. (2013). Gamification, Serious Games, Ludic Simulation, and other Contentious Categories. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 5(2), 1–19.

Dunn, K. E., Lo, W.-J., Mulvenon, S. W., & Sutcliffe, R. (2011). A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 72(2), 312–331.

Dunwell, I., Christmas, S., & Freitas, S. De. (2011). Code of Everand Final Evaluation Report (p. 112).

Dynkowska, M. (2006). Gestaltung von benutzerfreundlichen Online-Angeboten wissenschaftlicher Bibliotheken (p. 38). Gießen.

Ebner, M., & Holzinger, A. (2005). Successful implementation of user-centered game based learning in higher education: An example from civil engineering. Computers & Education, 49(3), 873–890.

Eck, R. Van. (2006a). Digital Game-Based Learning: It’s Not Just the Digital Natives Who Are Restless. EDUCAUSE Review, 41(2), 1–8.

Eck, R. Van. (2006b). Digital Game-Based Learning: It’s Not Just the Digital Natives Who Are Restless …. EDUCAUSE Review, 41(2), 1–16.

Eckerth, J. (2007). Methodologische Anforderungen an eine empirische Lernaufgabenforschung. In H. J. Vollmer (Ed.), Synergieeffekte in der Fremdsprachenforschung (pp. 91–104). Peter Lang.

Eckerth, J., & Siekmann, S. (2008). Task-based learner-learner interaction. Investigating learning opportunities, learning processes, and learning outcomes. In Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching. Theoretical Methodological and Pedagogical Perspectives (Vol. 71, pp. 89–118). Frankfurt am Main / New York: Peter Lang.

Egbert, J. (2000). A Study of Flow Theory in the Foreign Language Classroom. The Modern Langauge Journal, 87(499–518).

Egbert, J. (2010). “Engage me!”: Rules for Engagement in CALL. In CALL: What’s Your Motivation? Kyoto, Japan: JALT Publications.

Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S. (2007). Third Generation Educational Use of Computer Games. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 16(3), 263–281.

Ehrman, M. E., Leaver, B. Lou, & Oxford, R. L. (2003). A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning. System, 31(3), 313–330.

Einfluss, D., & Wechselberger, U. (2012). Spielst du noch oder lernst du schon? MedienPädagogik - Zeitschrift Für Theorie Und Praxis Der Medienbildung Theorie Und Praxis Der Medienbildung, 1–19.

Elder, C. (2001). Assessing the language proficiency of teachers: are there any border controls? Language Testing, 18(2), 149–170.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based Language Learning and Teaching (p. 387). Oxford U.K., New York: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2006). The methodology of task-based teaching. Asian EFL Journal, 8(3), 19–45.

Ellis, R. (2012). Language Teaching Research and Language Pedagogy (p. 392). Wiley-Blackwell.

Endres, H. (2013). Deutsche rutschen bei Englischkenntnissen ab. Spiegel Online.

Engelen, E.-M. (2012). Emotionen als Lernprozesse. Zeitschrift Für Erziehungswissenschaft, 15(1), 41–52.

Errickson, S. P., Maloney, A. E., Thorpe, D., Giuliani, C., & Rosenberg, A. M. (2012). “Dance Dance Revolution” Used by 7- and 8-Year-Olds to Boost Physical Activity: Is Coaching Necessary for Adherence to an Exercise Prescription? Games for Health Journal, 1(1), 45–50.

Eslami, Z. R., & Fatahi, A. (2008). Teachers ’ Sense of Self-Efficacy , English Proficiency , and Instructional Strategies : A Study of Nonnative EFL Teachers in Iran. TESL-EJ, 11(4), 1–19.

Evgeneiadis, G., Kouloumenta, V., & Potamianos, A. (2013). Analyzing Exploration and Exploitation Patterns in Multimodal Dialogue Games for Preschoolers (p. 4).

Fargas-Malet, M., McSherry, D., Larkin, E., & Robinson, C. (2010). Research With Children: Methodological Issues and Innovative Techniques. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 8(2), 175–192.

Federoff, M. A. (2002). HEURISTICS AND USABILITY GUIDELINES FOR THE CREATION AND. Indiana University.

Feil, J. H., & Scattergood, M. (2005). Beginning Game Level Design (p. 352). Boston: Thomson Course Technology.

Feist, S. (2008). Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Zeitschrift Für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht, 13(1), 1–25.

Ferguson, C. J., & Olson, C. K. (2013). Friends, fun, frustration and fantasy: Child motivations for video game play. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION, 37(1), 154–164.

Flowerdew, J., & Miller, L. (1995). On the Notion of Culture in L2 Lectures. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 345–373.

Fogg, B. (2009). A behavior model for persuasive design. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology - Persuasive ’09, 1.

Foley, L., & Maddison, R. (2010). Use of Active Video Games to Increase Physical Activity in Children: A (Virtual) Reality? Pediatric Exercise Science, 22(1), 7–20.

Fox, J., & Bailenson, J. N. (2009). Virtual Self-Modeling: The Effects of Vicarious Reinforcement and Identification on Exercise Behaviors. Media Psychology, 12(1), 25.

Franceschini, S., Gori, S., Ruffino, M., Viola, S., Molteni, M., & Facoetti, A. (2013). Action Video Games Make Dyslexic Children Read Better. Current Biology, 23(6), 462–466.

Franciosi, S. J. (2005). A Comparison of Computer Game and Language-Learning Task Design Using Flow Theory. CALL-EJ, 12(1), 11–25.

Franciosi, S. J. (2010). Making ESL/EFL Classroom Activities More Game-like. The Internet TESL Journal, 16(2), 1.

Fraser, C. A. (1999). LEXICAL PROCESSING STRATEGY USE AND VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH READING. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(2), 225–241.

Frederico, C. (2012). Results of a Dietitian Survey About Nutrition Games. Games for Health Journal, 1(1), 51–57.

Freitas, S. de, & Liarokapis, F. (2011). Serious Games : A New Paradigm for Education ? In M. Ma, A. Oikonomou, & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Serious Games and Edutainment Applications (pp. 9–23). Springer London.

Fritz, G., Richter, G., Dynkowska, M., Kaltwasser, D., & Stührenberg, M. (2006). Leitfaden für die Usability-Prüfung von Web-Angeboten von Hochschulbibliotheken (p. 30).

Fritz, J. (2005). Computerspiele: Was ist das?: Was unter Computerspielen verstanden und wie mit ihnen umgegangen wird (p. 1). Bonn.

Fritz, J., & Fehr, W. (1993). Videospiele in der Lebenswelt von Kindern und Jugendliche. In Computerspiele Bunte Welt im grauen Alltag - Ein medien- und kulturpädagogisches Arbeitsbuch (pp. 48–66). Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.

Fromme, J., Biermann, R., & Unger, A. (2010). “Serious Games” oder “taking games seriously”? In K.-U. Hugger & M. Walber (Eds.), Digitale Lernwelten. Konzepte, Beispiele und Perspektiven (1st ed., pp. 39–57). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Fromme, J., Jörissen, B., & Unger, A. (2008). Bildungspotenziale digitaler Spiele und Spielkulturen. MedienPädagogik, 15-16, 23.

Fromme, J., & Petko, D. (2009). Computerspiele und Videogames in formellen und informellen Bildungskontexten. MedienPädagogik, 15-16.

Fujimoto, C. (2012). Perceptions of mobile language learning in Australia : How ready are learners to study on the move? The Jaltcalljournal, 8(3), 165–195.

Fullerton, T., Swain, C., & Hoffman, S. S. (2008). Game Design Workshop - A Playcentric Approach To Creating Innovative Games (2nd ed., p. 491). Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New york, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo: Elsevier.

Game Studies - Game analysis  Developing a methodological toolkit for the qualitative study of games. (n.d.).

Games, Motivation {&} Learning. (2007). Sunderland, UK: Caspian Learning.

Ganguin, S. (2010). Computerspiele und lebenslanges Lernen: Eine Synthese von Gegensätzen (Vol. 13, p. 444). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Gao, Z., Hannan, P., Xiang, P., Stodden, D. F., & Valdez, V. E. (2013). Video Game-Based Exercise, Latino Children’s Physical Health, and Academic Achievement. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(3, 3), 240–246.

Gao, Z., & Podlog, L. (2012). Urban Latino Children’s Physical Activity Levels and Performance in Interactive Dance Video Games: Effects of Goal Difficulty and Goal Specificity. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166(10), 933–937.

Garcia, I., Escofet, A., & Gros, B. (2013). STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS ICT LEARNING USES: A COMPARISON BETWEEN DIGITAL LEARNERS IN BLENDED AND VIRTUAL UNIVERSITIES. Open Education Europe, 12.

Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice modell. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441–467.

Gee, J. P. (2003). High Score Education: Games, not school, are teaching kids to think. Wired.

Gee, J. P. (2005). Good Video Games and Good Learning. Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 85(2), 33–37.

Gee, J. P. (2006). Why Game Studies Now? Video Games: A New Art Form. Games and Culture, 1(1), 58–61.

Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy (2nd ed., p. 256). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gee, J. P. (2008). Cats and Portals: Video Games, Learning, and Play. American Journal of Play, 1(2), 229–245.

Gee, J. P. (2009a). Deep Learning Properties of Good Digital Games How Far Can They Go? In Theories and Mechanisms: Serious Games for Learning (pp. 63–80).

Gee, J. P. (2009b). Deep Learning Properties of Good Digital Games How Far Can They Go? In Theories and Mechanisms: Serious Games for Learning (pp. 63–80).

Gee, J. P. (2013). Good Video Games and Good Learning: Collected Essays on Video Games, Learning and Literacy (p. 194). New York: Peter Lang.

Gee, J. P., & Hayes, E. R. (2012). Women and Gaming: The Sims and 21st Century Learning. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 15(1), 286–288.

Gentile, D. A. (2011). The Multiple Dimensions of Video Game Effects. CHILD DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES, 5(2), 75–81.

Geukes, A. (2000). Design und Produktion Digitaler Interaktiver Lektionen. Universität Bielefeld.

Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., Kratz, O., … Heinrich, H. (2009). Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(7), 780–9.

Gierlinger, E., Carré-Karlinger, C., Fuchs, E., & Lechner, C. (2010). Innovative Impulse aus dem Europäischen Fremdsprachen- zentrum des Europarates : Die CLIL-Matrix in der Unterrichtspraxis Praxisreihe Heft 13. (P. Riegler & C. Carnevale, Eds.) (pp. 1–87). Österreichisches Sprachen-Kompetenz-Zentrum.

Girard, C., Ecalle, J., & Magnan, A. (2013). Serious games as new educational tools: how effective are they? A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(3), 207–219.

Glazer, S. (2006). Video Games - Do they have educational value? CQ Researcher, 16(40), 937–960.

Glowalla, U., Grob, H. L., & Thome, R. (2001). Qualitätssicherung interaktiver Studienangebote. In Studium online (pp. 51–73). Gütersloh: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung.

Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive Instruction for Second Language Listening Development: Theory, Practice and Research Implications. RELC Journal, 39(2), 188–213.

Goh, C., & Taib, Y. (2006). Metacognitive instruction in listening for young learners. ELT Journal, 60(3), 222–232.

Graaff, R. De, Koopman, G. J., Anikina, Y., & Westhoff, G. (2007). An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning ( CLIL ). The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(5), 603–622.

Graf, D. L., Pratt, L. V., Hester, C. N., & Short, K. R. (2009). Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children. PEDIATRICS, 124(2), 534–540.

Granic, I., Lobel, A., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2014a). The benefits of playing video games. The American Psychologist, 69, 66–78.

Granic, I., Lobel, A., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2014b). The benefits of playing video games. The American Psychologist, 69(1), 66–78.

Graves, L. E. F., Ridgers, N. D., Atkinson, G., & Stratton, G. (2010). The Effect of Active Video Gaming on Children’s Physical Activity, Behavior Preferences and Body Composition. PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE, 22(4), 535–546.

Green, B. A., Collier, K. J., & Evans N. (2001). Teaching tomorrow’s class today:English by telephone and computer from Hawaii to Tonga. In L. E. Henrichsen (Ed.), Distance-learning program (pp. 71–82). Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

Greenfield, P. M. (2009). Technology and Informal Education: What Is Taught, What Is Learned. SCIENCE, 323(5910), 69–71.

Griesbaum, J., Heuwing, B., Ruppenhofer, J., & Werner, K. (2013). Aufbruch nach Zyren - Game-based Learning in der Hochschullehre. HiER 2013, (April), 15.

Groh, F. (2012). Gamification: State of the Art Definition and Utilization. In Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Research Trends in Media Informatics (pp. 39–46). Ulm: Institute of Media Informatics Ulm University.

Gros, B. (2007). Digital Games in Education: The Design of Games-Based Learning Environments. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 23–38.

Grove, F., Bourgonjon, J., & van Looy, J. (2012). Digital games in the classroom? A contextual approach to teachers’ adoption intention of digital games in formal education. COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, 28(6), 2023–2033.

Gu, Y., & Johnson, R. K. (1996). Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Language Learning Outcomes. Language Learning, 46(4), 643–679.

Guastello, S. J., Johnson, E. A., & Rieke, M. L. (1999). Nonlinear dynamics of motivational flow. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences, 3(3), 259–273.

Guilloteaux, M. J., & Dörnyei, Z. (2008). Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 42(1), 55–77.

Guinn, E., Bickham, D., & Rich, M. (2011). PROBLEMATIC VIDEO GAME PLAY FROM THE ADOLESCENT PERSPECTIVE: PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH GAME FACTORS AND HEALTH STATUS IN A CHANGING INTERACTIVE ENVIRONMENT. JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, 48(2), S100–S101.

Gulbahar, Y. (2008). A Survey on ICT Usage and the Perceptions of Social Studies Teachers in Turkey The Need for ICT Integration in Schools Teachers ’ ICT Usage. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 37–51.

Gunstone, R. F., & Northfield, J. (1994). Metacognition and learning to teach. International Journal of Science Education, 16(5), 523–537.

Hafner, C. A., & Miller, L. (2011). FOSTERING LEARNER AUTONOMY IN ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE : A COLLABORATIVE DIGITAL VIDEO PROJECT IN A TECHNOLOGICAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. Language Learning & Technology, 15(3), 68–86.

Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2013). SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS TO USE GAMIFICATION : AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF GAMIFYING EXERCISE. In Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems (pp. 1–12). Utrecht, Netherlands.

Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does Gamification Work ? — A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification.

Hamari, J., & Veikko, E. (2011). Framework for Designing and Evaluating Game Achievements. In DiGRA (p. 20).

Hamlen, K. R. (2011). Children’s choices and strategies in video games. COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, 27(1), 532–539.

Hampel, R., Felix, U., Hauck, M., & Coleman, J. A. (2004). Complexities of learning and teaching languages in a real-time audiographic environment. GFL Journal, 3(2005), 1–30.

Hampel, R., & Hauck, M. (2004). TOWARDS AN EFFECTIVE USE OF AUDIO CONFERENCING IN DISTANCE LANGUAGE COURSES. Language Learning & Technology, 8(1), 66–82.

Hansen, L. W., & Sanders, S. W. (2011). Active gaming: A new paradigm in childhood physical activity. Digital Culture & Education, 3(2), 123–139.

Hanson-Smith, E., & Rilling, S. (2007). Learning Languages through Technology (Vol. 15, p. 332). TESOL Publications.

Harrell, M. C., & Bradley, M. A. (2009). Data Collection Methods (pp. 1–140). Arlington, Pittsburgh, Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

Hawkey, R. (2006). Teacher and learner perceptions of language learning activity. ELT Journal, 60(3), 242–252.

Heim, K., & Ritter, M. (2012). Teaching English: Computer-assisted Language Learning (1st ed., p. 220). Paderborn: Schöningh.

Helm, M. &. T. F. (2009). Serious Games als Instrument in der Führungskräfteentwicklung. In A. &. W. K. Hohenstein (Ed.), Handbuch E-Learning (pp. 1–5). Köln: Fachverlag Deutscher Wirtschaftsdienst.

Hemmi, A., Narumi-Munro, F., Alexander, W., Parker, H., & Yamauchi, Y. (2013). Co-evolution of mobile language learning: Going global with games consoles in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 1–11.

Hendrix, M., Arnab, S., Dunwell, I., Petridis, P., Lameras, P., Freitas, S. De, & Auneau, L. (2013). Integrating Serious Games in Adaptive Hypermedia Applications for Personalised Learning Experiences. International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning (eL&mL) (pp. 1–6).

Hendrix, M., Dunwell, I., & Lameras, P. (2012). Re-using Serious Games by encapsulating them in Learning Objects (pp. 1–6).

Hendrix, M., Knutov, E., Auneau, L., Protopsaltis, A., Dunwell, I., Petridis, P., & Freitas, S. De. (2012). Authoring of Adaptive Serious Games. (A. Ravenscroft, S. Lindstaedt, C. D. Kloos, & D. Hernández-Leo, Eds.) (Vol. 2, p. 541). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Hendrix, M., Protopsaltis, A., Freitas, S. De, Arnab, S., & Rolland, C. (2012). Defining a Metadata Schema for Serious Games as Learning Objects (pp. 14–19). Valencia, Spain.

Hendrix, M., Ugo, V., Malfa, L., Dietze, S., Mitsopoulou, E., Spachos, D., & Dovrolis, N. (2012). Technical Evaluation of The mEducator 3.0 Linked Data- based Environment for Sharing Medical Educational Resources (pp. 1–6).

Henrichsen, L. E. (Ed.). (2001). Distance-learning program. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

Henry, A. (2013). Digital Games and ELT: Bridging the Authenticity Gap. In E. Ushioda (Ed.), International Perspectives on Motivation (pp. 133–155). Palgrave Macmillan.

Herzog, M. A., Kiefer, C., & Sieck, J. (2009). Spielbasiertes Lernen mit nutzergenerierten Inhalten. In Grundfragen Multimedialen Lehrens und Lernens (pp. 175–184). Berlin.

Hitosugi, C. I., Schmidt, M., & Hayashi, K. (2014). Digital game – based learning (DGBL) in the L2 classroom: The impact of the UN’s off-the-shelf videogame, Food Force, on learner affect and vocabulary retention. CALICO Journal, 31(1), 19–39.

Ho, D. (2006). THE FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW RISING TO THE CHALLENGE IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. AUSTRALIAN REVIEW OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS, 29(1), 1–19.

Hoffmann, V. (2011). Knowledge and Innovation Management (pp. 1–168). Hohenheim.

Hölscher, P. (2006). Lernszenarien : die neue Philosophie des Sprachenlernens (p. 43).

Hölscher, P., Piepho, H.-E., & Roche, J. (2006). Handlungsorientierter Unterricht mit Lernszenarien (p. 24). Oberursel.

Holzinger, A.; Nischelwitzer, A.; Meisenberger, M. (2005). Mobile Phones as a Challenge for m-Learning: Examples for Mobile Interactive Learning Objects (MILOs). IEEE Computer Society.

Hong, J.-C., Lin, C.-L., Huang, H.-C., Chen, Y.-N., & Li, Y.-C. (2009). Playfulness-based Design in Educational Games: A pe rspective on an Evolutionary Contest Game. Interactive Learning Environments, 17(1), 15–35.

Hong-Nam, K., & Leavell, A. G. (2006). Language learning strategy use of ESL students in an intensive English learning context. System, 34(3), 399–415.

Horizon Report > 2013 Higher Education Edition. (2013) (p. 46).

Horwitz, E. K. (1999). Cultural and situational influences on foreign language learners’ beliefs about language learning: a review of BALLI studies. System, 27(4), 557–576.

Hoven, D., & Palalas, A. (2013). The Design of Effective Mobile-Enabled Tasks for ESP Students : A Longitudinal Study. CALICO Journal, 137–165.

Hoy, A. W., & Spero, R. B. (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(4), 343–356.

Hsiao, T., & Oxford, R. L. (2002). Comparing Theories of Language Learning Strategies: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The Modern Language Journal, 86(3), 368–383.

Huang, W. H. W. &. T. J. (2010). Sustaining iterative game playing processes in DGBL: The relationship between motivational processing and outcome processing. Computers & Education, 55(2), 789–797.

Hubbard, P. (2009). General Introduction. In Computer Assisted Language Learning: Critical Concepts in Linguistics (1st ed., pp. 1–20). Routledge Chapman & Hall.

Hugger, K.-U., & Walber, M. (2010). Digitale Lernwelten. Konzepte, Beispiele und Perspektiven. (M. Hugger, Kai-Uwer; Walber, Ed.) (2010th ed., p. 300). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Huizinga, J. (1961). Homo ludens: Vom Ursprung der Kultur im Spiel (Vol. 55435, p. 220). Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlts deutsche Enzyklopädie.

Hulstijn, J. H. (2005). THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 27(2), 129–140.

Hult, F. M. (2010). Directions and Prospects for Educational Linguistics (p. 156). New York: Springer.

Hunicke, R., Leblanc, M., & Zubek, R. (2004). MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research. In Challenges in Games AI Workshop (p. 5).

International Student Carbon Footprint Challenge – Social Media as a Content and Language Integrated Learning Environment. (2012), 2.

Intratat, C. (2011). Alternatives for Making Language Learning Games More Appealing for Self-Access Learning. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 2(3), 136–152.

Ishihara, N., & Cohen, A. D. (2010). Teaching and Learning Pragmatics - Where Language and Culture Meet (p. 370). New York: Longman.

Jackson, L. A. (2012). The Upside of Videogame Playing. Games for Health Journal, 1(6), 452–455.

Jackson, S., & Fearon, C. (2014). Exploring the role and influence of expectations in achieving VLE benefit success. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(2), 245–259.

Jansz, J. (2006). Playing video games: Motives, responses, and consequences. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION, 56(4), 861–862.

Jantke, K. P. (2007). Serious Games - eine kritische Analyse. Ilmenau: IfMK der TU Ilmenau.

Jäppinen, A.-K. (2005). Thinking and Content Learning of Mathematics and Science as Cognitional Development in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Teaching Through a Foreign Language in Finland. Language and Education, 19(2), 147–168.

Jarmon, L., Lim, K. Y. T., & Carpenter, B. S. (2009). “ Pedagogy , Education and Innovation in 3-D Virtual Worlds ” April 2009. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 2(1).

Jati, A., Jupit, R., Minoi, J., Arnab, S., & Wee, A. Y. (2012). Story-Telling and Narrative Methods With Localised Content to Preserve Knowledge. Proceedings of the European Conference on Games Based Learning, 210.

Jeffery, A. &. C. M. (n.d.). Immersive Learning and Role Plays in Second Life (pp. 2628–2632).

Jenkins, H., Camper, B., Chisholm, A., Grigsby, N., Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., … Weise, M. &. C. guan T. (n.d.). From Serious Games to Serious Gaming (pp. 448–468).

JISC - Joint Information Systems Committee. (2005). . Multimedia learning with mobile phones. Innovative Practices with Elearning. Case studies: Anytime, any place Learning.

Johnson, E. (1992). THE EMERGING BELIEFS AND INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES OF PRESERVICE ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHERS.

Johnson, S. (2006). Neue Intelligenz: Warum wir durch Computerspiele und TV klüger werden (Vol. 928). Köln: Kiepenheuer {&} Witsch.

Johnson, W. L. (2010). Serious Use of a Serious Game for Language Learning 1, 20, 175–195.

Johnson, W. L. &. W. S. (2008). Assessing aptitude for learning with a serious game for foreign language and culture. In B. Woolf, E. Aimeur, & R. &. L. S. Nkambou (Eds.), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 9th International Conference, ITS 2008 (pp. 520–529). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Johnson, W. L., & Beal, C. (n.d.). Iterative Evaluation of a Large-Scale , Intelligent Game for Language Learning.

Johnson, W. L., Ph, D., Zaker, S. B., & Ed, M. (2012). The Power of Social Simulation for Chinese Language Teaching, 1–6.

Johnson, W. L., & Valente, A. (2009). Tactical Language and Culture Training Systems : Using AI to Teach Foreign Languages and Cultures. AI MAGAZINE, 72–83.

Journal, H. U., & Kutluca, T. (2010). EXAMINING TEACHER CANDIDATES ’ ATTITUDES AND SELF-EFFICACY PERCEPT İ ONS TOWARDS THE COMPUTER ASSISTED EDUCATION, 2006–2008.

Journal, I. O., & Sciences, E. (2011). A Study on Pre- service English Teachers ’ Self - efficacy Beliefs Depending on Some Variables, 3(1), 245–260.

Journal, J., Distributed, A., & Technology, L. (2013). JOURNAL OF ADVANCED DISTRIBUTED LEARNING, 1(1), 1–90.

Juhász, A. (2011). NATIVE EFL TEACHERS ’ SELF-PERCEPTION OF THEIR TEACHING BEHAVIOUR : A QUALITATIVE STUDY 1 Introduction, 5(2008), 86–99.

Jürgens, E. (2003). Schulmanagement handbuch - Schüleraktive Unterrichsformen. München.

Kalaja, P. (1995). Student beliefs (or metacognitive knowledge) about SLA reconsidered. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 191–204.

Kamada, M., Moriyama, M., & Iwai, K. (2013). A New Program for Healthy Eating Study Using a Card Game. Games for Health Journal, 2(1), 18–23.

Kamel Boulos, M. N. (2012). Xbox 360 Kinect Exergames for Health. Games for Health Journal, 1(5), 326–330.

Kanno, Y., & Stuart, C. (2011). Learning to Become a Second Language Teacher: Identities-in-Practice. The Modern Language Journal, 95(2), 236–252.

Kanpp, K. M. (n.d.). The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.

Karlström, P. (2009). Call of the Wild (p. 75). Stockholm: Stockholm University.

Kato, P. M. (2010). Video games in health care: Closing the gap. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 113–121.

Kato, P. M. (2012). Evaluating Efficacy and Validating Games for Health. Games for Health Journal, 1(1), 74–76.

Kaufman, D., Sauvé, L., Renaud, L., & Sauve, L. (2011). ENHANCING LEARNING THROUGH AN ONLINE SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL GAME. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH, 44(4), 409–428.

Kenny, R. F., & McDaniel, R. (2011a). The role teachers’ expectations and value assessments of video games  play in their adopting and integrating them into their classrooms. BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 42(2), 197–213.

Kenny, R. F., & McDaniel, R. (2011b). The role teachers’ expectations and value assessments of video games play in their adopting and integrating them into their classrooms. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(2), 197–213.

Kerres, M. (2003). < Michael Kerres Medien in der Erziehungswissenschaft: Status und Probleme 5.7.2003.

Kerres, M. (2009). Explizites Lernen in Serious Games: Zur Einbettung von Lernauf- gaben in digitalen Spielwelten. Zeitschrift Für E-Learning, 2009(4), 1–14.

Kerres, M., & Bormann, M. (2009). Didaktische Konzeption von Serious Games : Zur Verknüpfung von Spiel- und Lernangeboten, (August).

Kerres, M., & Bormann, M. &. V. M. (2009). Didaktische Konzeption von Serious Games: Zur Verknüpfung von Spiel- und Lernangeboten. Zürich.

Ketamo, H., Kiili, K., & Arnab, S. (n.d.). Integrating Games into the Classroom : Towards New Teachership.

Kharrazi, H., Lu, A. S., Gharghabi, F., & Coleman, W. (2012). A Scoping Review of Health Game Research: Past, Present, and Future. Games for Health Journal, 1(2), 153–164.

Kickmeier-Rust, M. D., & Albert, D. (2010). Micro-adaptivity: protecting immersion in didactically adaptive digital educational games. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(2), 95–105.

Kiili, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(1), 13–24.

Kiili, K., de Freitas, S., Arnab, S., & Lainema, T. (2012). The Design Principles for Flow Experience in Educational Games. Procedia Computer Science, 15, 78–91.

Kim, B., Park, H., & Baek, Y. (2009). Not just fun, but serious strategies: Using meta-cognitive strategies in game-based learning. Computers & Education, 2009(52), 800–810.

Kim, D., Rueckert, D., Kim, D., Seo, D., Experiences, L., & Learning, M. (2013). STUDENTS ’ PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF, (October), 52–73.

Kim, I.-S. (2012). The Impact of M-Learning: Smart Phones/Tablet PCs and Their Potential Use for Foreign Language Learning. The APAMALL Higher Education Journal, 2(1), 61–89.

Kirriemuir, J., & McFarlane, A. (2003). Level Up Conference Proceedings. In Use of Computer and Video Games in the Classroom (p. 12). Utrecht: University of Utrecht.

Klee, C. A., Lynch, A., & Tarone, E. (1998). Research and Practice in Immersion Education: Looking Back and Looking Ahead Selected Conference Proceedings (pp. 1–146).

Klemetti, M., Karppinen, P., & Taimisto, O. (2007). The Attitudes of Finnish School Teachers towards Commercial Educational Games.

Klimmt, C. (2001). Computer-Spiel: Interaktive Unterhaltungsangebote als Synthese aus Medium und Spielzeug. Zeitschrift Für Medienpsychologie, 13(1), 22–32.

Klimmt, C. (2008). Unterhaltungserleben bei Computerspielen. In K. &. R. H. Mitgutsch (Ed.), Faszination Computerspielen. Theorie - Kultur -- Erleben. Wien: Braumüller.

Klippel, F., Koller, G., & Polleti, A. (2007). Fremdsprachenlernen online. Erfahrungen und Erkenntnisse im Projektverbund SprachChancen (p. 278). Münster: Waxmann.

Klopfer, E. (2008). Augmented Learning: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games. (E. Klopfer, Ed.) (reprinted .). Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press (MIT Press).

Klopfer, E., Education, T., & Squire, K. (n.d.). Environmental Detectives – The Development of an Augmented Reality Platform for Environmental Simulations., 1–50.

Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., Salen, K., Groff, J., & Roy, D. (n.d.). moving learning games forward.

Knautz, K., Soubusta, S., & Orszullok, L. (2013). Game-based Learning for Digital Natives: Knowledge is Just a Click Away. In Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Advanced ICT (pp. 74–78). Paris, France: Atlantis Press.

Koh, J. H. L., & Sing, C. C. (2011). Modeling pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) perceptions: The influence of demographic factors and TPACK constructs. In ascilite (pp. 735–746). Hobart, Australia: ascilite.

Kohn, B. A. (1987). Studies Find Reward Often No Motivator.

Kojima, H. (2010). Developing Initial EFL Teachers’ Autonomy: The Case of the CARLA Program. OnCUE Journal, 4(1), 43–59.

Königs, F. G. (2003). Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages in Germany: a personal overview of developments in research. Language Teaching, 36(04), 235–251.

Koo, D.-M. (2009). The moderating role of locus of control on the links between  experiential motives and intention to play online games. COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, 25(2, SI), 466–474.

Korn, O. (2011a). Potenziale und Fallstricke bei der spielerischen Kontextualisierung von Lernangeboten. In M. Metz & F. Theis (Eds.), Digitale Lernwelt – Serious Games (pp. 15–26). W. Bertelsmann Verlag.

Korn, O. (2011b). Potenziale und Fallstricke bei der spielerischen Kontextualisierung von Lernangeboten. In M. Metz & F. Theis (Eds.), Digitale Lernwelt – Serious Games (pp. 15–26). Bielefeld: Bertelsmann Verlag.

Koster, R. (2005). A Theory of Fun For Game Design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press, Inc.

Krajka, J. (2007). English Language Teaching in the Internet -Assisted Environment.

Kramsch, C. (2008). Ecological perspectives on foreign language education. Language Teaching, 41(03), 389–408.

Krystalli, P., Arvanitis, P., & Panagiotidis, P. (2014). Evaluating Serious Games for Foreign Language Learning:An Online Grading and Visualization Tool. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education (IJCDSE), 5(1), 1564–1570.

Kululska-Hulme, A. &. T. J. (2005). Mobile Learning: A Handbook For Educators and Trainers (The Open and Flexible Learning Series). Routledge.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). TESOL Methods : Changing Tracks ,, 40(1), 59–81.

Kummin, S., & Rahman, S. (2010). The Relationship between the Use of Metacognitive Strategies and Achievement in English. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7(C), 145–150.

Kuo, M. (2008). Learner to Teacher : EFL Student Teachers ’ Perceptions on Internet-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (p. 11). Taiwan.

Kuszpa, M. (2007). Mobile Learning in der beruflichen Weiterbildung. Education Permanente, 11(4), 14–15.

Kuszpa, M. (2009). Manager lernen mit dem Handy -- Erfahrungen mit mobilem E-Learning in der Weiterbildung von Führungskräften. In A. &. W. K. Hohenstein (Ed.), Handbuch E-Learning (pp. 1–3). Köln: Deutscher Wirtschaftsdienst.

Kyas, S. (2011). Lernen mit Computer / Internet und Schulbuch. MedienPädagogik - Zeitschrift Für Theorie Und Praxis Der Medienbildung Theorie Und Praxis Der Medienbildung.

LaLone, N. J. (2012). DIFFERENCES IN DESIGN VIDEO GAME DESIGN IN PRE AND POST 9/11 AMERICA. Texas State University.

Lampert, C., & Schwinge, C. (2009). Der gespielte Ernst des Lebens : Bestandsaufnahme und Potenziale von Serious Games ( for Health ), (15).

Lasagabaster, D. (2011). English achievement and student motivation in CLIL and EFL settings. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5(1), 3–18.

Le, S., & Weber, P. (2011). Game-Based Learning Spielend Lernen? Lehrbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologien.

Leakey, J. (2011). Evaluating Computer-Assisted Language Learning - An Integrated Approach to Effectiveness Research in CALL (p. 308). Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Wien: Peter Lang.

Learning, B., & National, T. (2011). of the 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning The National and Kapodistrian, (October).

Learning, L. I., & Reading, A. E. (n.d.). Islands , a new adventure to learn English … in English !, 5–7.

Learning strategies and self-regulation in vocabulary acquisition: a research project about efl learners study experience and achievement. (2013).

Learning, T. L., Thomas, M., & Reinders, H. (2011). REVIEW OF TASK-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, 15(3), 32–36.

Lee, J., Committee, D., Samimy, K. K., Hirvela, A., & Hoy, A. W. (2009). TEACHERS ’ SENSE OF EFFICACY IN TEACHING ENGLISH , PERCEIVED ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY , AND ATTITUDES TOWARD THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE : A CASE OF KOREAN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS.

Lee, J. J., College, T., Ph, D., Hammer, E., & Interdisciplinary, M. (2011). Gamification in Education : What , How , Why Bother ? What : Definitions and Uses, 15, 1–5.

Legutke, M. (2003). Fremdsprachenlernen mit digitalen medien. Tübingen.

Lehdonvirta, V. (2009). Virtual item sales as a revenue model: identifying attributes that drive purchase decisions. Electronic Commerce Research, 9(1-2), 97–113.

Lehnhof, R. (2014). Gamification & Co.: Wie Spiele zu Karrierehelfern werden. Spiegel Online. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/games/falsches-spiel-a-938480.html

Lerntheoretische Hauptströmungen und ihre Umsetzung in Fremdsprachendidaktik und Fremdsprachenlernsoftware. (2004) (pp. 51–96).

Levac, D., Pierrynowski, M. R., Canestraro, M., Gurr, L., Leonard, L., & Neeley, C. (2010). Exploring children’s movement characteristics during virtual  reality video game play. Human Movement Science, 29(6), 1023–1038.

Levy, M. (2007). CULTURE , CULTURE LEARNING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES : TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK, 11(2), 104–127.

Levy, R. M., & Orich, A. (2009a). and PC Technology, 26(2), 337–362.

Levy, R. M., & Orich, A. (2009b). Virtual Immersion and the Role of CAVE, 26(2), 337–362.

Lillie, T., Sell, K., Taylor, J., Vener, J., Ransdell, L., & Tudor-Locke, C. (2005). Physical Activity Recommendations Can Be Met Using A Physically  Interactive Video Game Among College Students. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 37(5), S248.

Lim, K. (2009). No Title. (Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, Ed.). Retrieved from http://journals.tdl.org/jvwr/article/view/424/466

Lim, T., Suttie, N., & Ritchie, J. M. (2013). Strategies for Effective Digital Games Development and Implementation. In Y. Baek & N. Whitton (Eds.), Cases on Digital Game-Based Learning (pp. 168–198). IGI Global.

Lippincott, R. M. (2009). Teachers Increasingly Value Media and Technology, 1–11.

Littlewood, W. (2004). The task-based approach: some questions and suggestions. ELT Journal, 58(4), 319–326. Retrieved from 10.1093/elt/58.4.319

Liu, T. &. C. Y. (2010). Using ubiquitous games in an English listening and speaking course: Impact on learning outcomes and motivation. Computers {&} Education, 55(2), 630–643. Retrieved from 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.02.023

Locastro, V. (2001). Individual di € erences in second language acquisition : attitudes , learner subjectivity , and L2 pragmatic norms, 29, 69–89.

Lockton, D. (2010). Learning from game design: 11 gambits for influencing user behaviour. Retrieved from http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2010/03/22/learning-from-game-desi...

Lorenzo, F., Casal, S., & Moore, P. (2009). The Effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning in European Education: Key Findings from the Andalusian Bilingual Sections Evaluation Project. Applied Linguistics, 31(3), 418–442.

Lortie, C. L., & Guitton, M. J. (2012). Looking Similar Promotes Group Stability in a Game-Based Virtual Community. Games for Health Journal, 1(4), 274–278.

Loucky, J. P. (2006). Systematically Using a Depth of Lexical, 23(2).

Lu, A. S., Baranowski, T., Thompson, D., & Buday, R. (2012). Story Immersion of Videogames for Youth Health Promotion: A Review of Literature. Games for Health Journal, 1(3), 199–204.

Lu, A. S., Kharrazi, H., Gharghabi, F., & Thompson, D. (2013). A Systematic Review of Health Videogames on Childhood Obesity Prevention and Intervention. Games for Health Journal, 2(3), 131–141.

Lu, A. S., Thompson, D., Baranowski, J., Buday, R., & Baranowski, T. (2012). Story Immersion in a Health Videogame for Childhood Obesity Prevention. Games for Health Journal, 1(1), 37–44.

Ludwig, J., Fu, D., Bardovi-harlig, K., & Stringer, D. (2009). Serious Games for Second Language Retention, (9164), 1–10.

Lymdn, O. (2011). The Impact of Game-Based Learning on the Achievement of Learning Goals and Motivation for Learning Mathematics - Literature Review, 1, 15–30.

Lynch, T. (2001). Seeing what they meant: Transcribing as a route to noticing. ELT Journal, 55, 124–132.

Lys, F. (2013). THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED LEARNER ORAL PROFICIENCY, (October).

Ma, Q., Yang, Z., Chen, H., Zhu, D., & Guo, H. (2012). A Serious Game for Teaching and Learning Agricultural Machinery Driving, 12, 56–62.

Macaro, E. (2001). Analysing Student Teachers’ Codeswitching in Foreign Language Classrooms: Theories and Decision Making. The Modern Langauge Journal, 85(4), 531–548.

Macaro, E., Handley, Z., & Walter, C. (2011). A systematic review of CALL in English as a second language: Focus on primary and secondary education. Language Teaching, 45(01), 1–43.

Macdonald, P., De, U. P., Carot-sierra, J. M., Politècnica, U., Lai, C., Lin, W., & Tsing, N. (2013). Volume 17 Number 2 June 2013 Articles Announcements & Call for Papers, 17(2), 32–35.

Macedonia, M. (2005). Games and foreign language teaching. Support for Learning, 20(3), 135–140. Retrieved from 10.1111/j.0268-2141.2005.00377.x

Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2001). Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition: A Practical Guide (pp. 1–336). Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved from http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1444334263.html

Macvean, A. (2012). Understanding the Player: The Need for Adaption in Exergames for Adolescents. Games for Health Journal, 1(5), 369–372.

Maddison, R. (2013). Exergames, Obesity, and Youth at the National Institute for Health Innovation, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Games for Health Journal, 2(3), 127–128.

Maddison, R., Jull, A., Marsh, S., Direito, A., & Mhurchu, C. N. (2013). Active Videogames and Weight Management: Is There a Future? Games for Health Journal, 2(3), 179–182.

Maddison, R., Mhurchu, C. N., Jull, A., Jiang, Y., Prapavessis, H., & Rodgers, A. (2007). Energy expended playing video console games: An opportunity to increase  children’s physical activity? PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE, 19(3), 334–343.

Magnan, S. (Ed.). (2008). Mediating Discourse Online. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Malaby, T. M. (2007). Beyond Play: A New Approach to Games. Games and Culture, 2(2), 95–113.

Malley, J. M. O., Chamot, A. U., & Stewner-, G. (n.d.). LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY BEGINNING AND INTERMEDIATE ESL STUDENTS Manzanares , Lisa Kupper , and Rocco P . Russo InterAmerica Research Associates.

Malone, T. W. (1983). Guidelines for designing educational computer programs. Childhood Education, 59(4), 241–247.

Maloney, A. E., Bethea, T. C., Kelsey, K. S., Marks, J. T., Paez, S., Rosenberg, A. M., … Sikich, L. (2008). A pilot of a video game (DDR) to promote physical activity and  decrease sedentary screen time. OBESITY, 16(9), 2074–2080.

Maloney, A. E., Stempel, A., Wood, M. E., Patraitis, C., & Beaudoin, C. (2012). Can Dance Exergames Boost Physical Activity as a School-Based Intervention? Games for Health Journal, 1(6), 416–421.

Maloney, A. E., Threlkeld, K. A., & Cook, W. L. (2012). Comparative Effectiveness of a 12-Week Physical Activity Intervention for Overweight and Obese Youth: Exergaming with “Dance Dance Revolution.” Games for Health Journal, 1(2), 96–103.

Marr, A. J. (2001). In the zone: A biobehavioral theory of the flow experience. Athletic Insight,, 3(3), http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol3Iss1/Commentary.

Marsella, S. C., Johnson, W. L., & Labore, C. M. (2003). Interactive Pedagogical Drama for Health Interventions.

Martin, C., Ochsner, A., & Squire, K. (2012). GLS 8.0 Conference Proceedings (pp. 1–658). Retrieved from http://www.etc.cmu.edu/etcpress/content/gls-80-conference-proceedings

Matsumura, S. (2003). Modelling the Relationships among Interlanguage Pragmatic Development, L2 Proficiency, and Exposure to L2. Applied Linguistics, 24(4), 465–491.

Mawer, K., & Stanley, G. (2011). Digital Play: Computer Games And Language Aims (p. 250). Surrey, England: Delta Publishing.

Mayer, I., Bekebrede, G., Harteveld, C., Warmelink, H., Zhou, Q., van Ruijven, T., … Wenzler, I. (2013). The research and evaluation of serious games: Toward a comprehensive methodology. British Journal of Educational Technology, n/a–n/a.

Mayer, R. E., & Johnson, C. I. (2010). ADDING INSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES THAT PROMOTE LEARNING IN A GAME-LIKE  ENVIRONMENT. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH, 42(3), 241–265.

Mcclarty, K. L., Frey, P. M., & Dolan, R. P. (2012). A Literature Review of Gaming in Education Research Report, (June).

McDougall, J., & Duncan, M. J. (2008). Children, video games and physical activity: An exploratory study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON DISABILITY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, 7(1), 89–94.

McFerrin, K. et al (Ed.). (2008). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology {&} Teacher Education International Conference 2008. Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Mcleod, G. (2006). Learning Theory and Instructional Design. Learning Matters, 2(5), 35–43. Retrieved from http://www.principals.in/uploads/pdf/Instructional_Strategie/learningthe...

Meara, P., & Fitzpatrick, T. (2000). Lex30: an improved method of assessing productive vocabulary in an L2. System, 28(1), 19–30.

Media, N. A., New, F., & Ny, Y. (n.d.-a). No Title.

Media, N. A., New, F., & Ny, Y. (n.d.-b). No Title.

Medienbildung, D. (2011). Leading by the Hand, (19).

Medienbildung, D., & Malo, S. (2009). Game-based Training in der Alphabetisierung, (15).

Meier, C. &. S. S. (2009). Game-based learning: Erfahrungen mit und Perspektiven für digitale Lernspiele in der beruflichen Bildung. In A. &. W. K. Hohenstein (Ed.), Handbuch E-Learning. Köln: Deutscher Wirtschaftsdienst.

Meyer, B. (2011). 4 . METHODS AND DESIGN FOR RESEARCH IN GLOBAL ORIENTED GAME-BASED, 51–64.

Meyer, B. (2013). Game-Based Language Learning for Pre-School Children: A Design Perspective. The Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 11(1), 39–48. Retrieved from http://www.ejel.org/issue/download.html?idArticle=233

Mhurchu, C. N., Maddison, R., Jiang, Y., Jull, A., Prapavessis, H., & Rodgers, A. (2008). Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active  video games on physical activity in children. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, 5.

Michael, D. (n.d.). Serious Games: Games that Educate, Train and Inform. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Serious-Games-Educate-Train-Inform/dp/1592006221/r...

Michael, D. &. C. S. (2006). Serious games: Games that educate, train and inform. Boston: Thomson Course Technology.

Michaelis, I. (2013). Play Yourself Healthy! Games for Health Journal, 2(3), 129–130.

Mikkelsen, S. L., & Hartzen, A. (n.d.). Escape from Trelleborg – Situated Learning through Augmented Reality.

Mikroyannidis, A., Connolly, T., & Law, E. L.-C. (2012). A Survey into the Teacher’s Perception of Self-Regulated Learning. 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 696–697.

Miller, T. A., Vaux-Bjerke, A., McDonnell, K. A., & DiPietro, L. (2013). Can E-Gaming Be Useful for Achieving Recommended Levels of Moderate- to Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activity in Inner-City Children? Games for Health Journal, 2(2), 96–102.

Millstone, J. (2012). Teacher Attitudes about Digital Games in the Classroom.

Mitchell, A., & Savill-smith, C. (2000). The use of computer and video games for learning A review of the literature The use of computer and video games for learning.

Mitgutsch, K. (2012). Learning Through Play – A Delicate Matter: Experience-Based Recursive Learning in Computer Games. In J. Fromme & A. Unger (Eds.), Computer Games and New Media Cultures (p. 584). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Mitgutsch, K. &. R. H. (Ed.). (2008). Faszination Computerspielen. Theorie - Kultur -- Erleben. Wien: Braumüller.

Mobile Technologies Put Language Learning into Young Second Language Learners ’ Hands. (2012), 2.

Mollick, E., & Rothbard, N. (2013). Mandatory Fun : Gamification and the Impact of Games at Work (pp. 1–51). Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2277103

Moreno-Ger, P., Torrente, J., Hsieh, Y. G., & Lester, W. T. (2012). Usability Testing for Serious Games: Making Informed Design Decisions with User Data. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction - Special Issue on User Assessment in Serious Games and Technology-Enhanced Learning, 2012, 1–13.

Morgan, B. (2004). Teacher Identity as Pedagogy : Towards a Field-Internal Conceptualisation in Bilingual and Second Language Education, (2000), 172–188.

Morgan, B., & Ramanathan, V. (2002). AND LOCAL PERSPECTIVES, (2005), 151–169.

Morgan, D. L. (2010). Reconsidering the role of interaction in analyzing and reporting focus groups. Qualitative Health Research, 20(5), 718–722.

Morrison, B., & Green, C. &. M. G. (Eds.). (2003). Directions in CALL: Experience, experiments {&} evaluation. Hong Kong: English Language Centre.

Mukundan, J., Rezvani Kalajahi, S. A., & Naghdipour, B. (2014). The Potential of Incorporating Computer Games in Foreign Language Curricula. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 5(2), 19–24.

Müller, J. (2002). Konzept zur Beurteilung von Software unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Sachunterrichts.

Nah, K., & White, P. &. S. R. (2003). The Potential of Using mobile Phone to Access the Internet for Learning EFL Listening Skills Within a Korean Context. ReCALL, 20(3), 331–347. Retrieved from http://www.eurocall-languages.org/recall/index.html

Namee, B. Mac, Rooney, P., Lindstrom, P., & Boylan, F. (2006). Serious Gordon : using serious games to teach food safety in the kitchen .

Nelson, T., & Oliver, W. (n.d.). Murder on the Internet, 17(1), 101–114.

Neville, D. O. (2010). Structuring Narrative in 3D Digital Game-Based Learning Environments to Support Second Language Acquisition. Foreign Language Annals, 43(3), 446–469.

Neville, D. O., Shelton, B. E., & McInnis, B. (2009). Cybertext redux: using digital game-based learning to teach L2 vocabulary, reading, and culture. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(5), 409–424.

Nicholson, S., & Studies, I. (2012). A User-Centered Theoretical Framework for Meaningful Gamification A Brief Introduction to Gamification Organismic Integration Theory Situational Relevance and Situated Motivational Affordance.

Niegemann, H. M., Domagk, S., Hessel, S., Hein, A., Hupfer, M., & Zobel, A. (2008). Kompendium multimediales Lernen (p. 700). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Nisbet, D. L., Tindall, E. R., & Beach, U. V. (1997). Language Learning Strategies and English-Proficiency of ChYnese University Students, 100–107.

Nishino, T. (2012). Modeling Teacher Beliefs and Practices in Context: A Multimethods Approach. The Modern Language Journal, 96(3), 380–399.

Nistor, N., Lerche, T., Weinberger, A., Ceobanu, C., & Heymann, O. (2012). Towards the integration of culture into the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. British Journal of Educational Technology.

Norman, G. J., Adams, M. A., Ramirez, E. R., Carlson, J. A., Kerr, J., Godbole, S., … Marshall, S. J. (2013). Effects of Behavioral Contingencies on Adolescent Active Videogame Play and Overall Activity: A Randomized Trial. Games for Health Journal, 2(3), 158–165.

Northfield, J., & Gunstone, R. (1997). Teacher Education as a process of developing teacher knowledge. In Teaching about teaching: purpose, passion and pedagogy in teacher education (pp. 48–56). London UK: Falmer.

Norton, B. (2000). Identity and language learning : gender, ethnicity and educational change. (B. Norton, Ed.) (1st ed.). Harlow, England, New York: Longman.

Nunan, D. (1997). Strategy Training in the Language Classroom: an Empirical Investigation. RELC Journal, 28(2), 56–81.

Nunn, R. (2006). Designing holistic units for task-based teaching. Asian EFL Journal, 8(3), 69–93.

Nyikos, M., & Oxford, R. (n.d.). A Factor Analytic Study of Strategy Use : Interpretations from Theory and Social Psychology, 1.

Oblinger, D. (n.d.). Games and Learning. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eqm0630.pdf

Ockert, D. (2010). Substantive Scale Development : How to Design, Administer, and Verify a Likert Scale Questionnaire for a Research Project. OnCUE Journal, 3(3), 259–272. Retrieved from http://jaltcue.org/files/OnCUE/OCJ3-3articles/OCJ3.3.5.Ockert.pdf

Oei, A. C., & Patterson, M. D. (2013). Enhancing Cognition with Video Games: A Multiple Game Training Study. PLOS ONE, 8(3).

Olaniran, B. A., Rodriguez, N. B., & Williams, I. M. (n.d.). Cross-Cultural Challenges in Web-Based Instruction, 2(4), 448–465.

Online CLIL Scaffolding at University Level : Building Vocabulary Across Disciplines Through Online Learning. (2012), 2.

Osorio, G., Moffat, D. C., & Sykes, J. (2012). Exergaming, Exercise, and Gaming: Sharing Motivations. Games for Health Journal, 1(3), 205–210.

Oxford, R. (2006). Task-based language teaching and learning: An overview. Asian EFL Journal, 8(3), 94–121.

Oxford, R. L. (n.d.). Development and Psychometric Testing of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning ( SILL ).

Oxford, R. L. (1989a). USE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES : A SYNTHESIS OF STUDIES WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR STRATEGY TRAINING. System, 17(2), 235–247.

Oxford, R. L. (1989b). Use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. System.

Oxford, R. L. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: Concepts and relationships. IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 41(4), 271–278.

Oxford, R. L., & Burry-stock, J. A. (1990). ASSESSING THE USE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES WORLDWIDE WITH THE ESL / EFL VERSION OF THE STRATEGY INVENTORY FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING ( SILL ), (94), 1986–1990.

Oxford, R., & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables Affecting Choice of Language Learning Strategies by University Student. The Modern Langauge Journal, 73(3), 291–300. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1989.tb06367.x/ab...

Paez, S. (2008). A review of factors influencing participation in physical  activities and use of a dance simulation video game among a cohort of 7-8 year old North Carolinian children.

Paez, S., Maloney, A., Kelsey, K., Wiesen, C., & Rosenberg, A. (2009). Parental and Environmental Factors Associated with Physical Activity  Among Children Participating in an Active Video Game. PEDIATRIC PHYSICAL THERAPY, 21(3), 245–253.

Palloff, R. &. P. K. (2010). Beyond the looking glass: What faculty and students need to be successful online. In K. &. S.-R. J. Rudestam (Ed.), Handbook of online learning (2nd ed.) (pp. 370–386). Thousand Oaks Calif.: SAGE Publications.

Pan,Zhigeng; Zhang, Xiaopeng; El Rhalibi, Abdennour; Woo, Woontack; Li, Y. (2008). Technologies for E-learning and Digital Entertainment. (Y. Pan, Zhigeng; Zhang, Xiaopeng; El Rhalibi, Abdennour; Woo, Woontack; Li, Ed.) (2008th ed.). Berlin: Springer.

Panoutsopoulos, H., & Sampson, D. G. (2012). A Study on Exploiting Commercial Digital Games into School Context, 15, 15–27.

Panzoli, D., Peters, C., & Dunwell, I. (n.d.). A Level of Interaction Framework for Exploratory Learning with Characters in Virtual Environments, 1–21.

Papastergiou, M. (2009). Digital Game-Based Learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. Computers {&} Education, 52(1), 1–12. Retrieved from 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.06.004

Papastergiou, M. (2009). Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and  physical education: A literature review. COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, 53(3), 603–622.

Paredes, H., Pinho, A., & Zagalo, N. (2012). Challenges of Health Games in the Social Network Environment. Games for Health Journal, 1(2), 171–173.

Park, H. R. (2012). Four English Language Learners ’ Experiences and Strategy Use in Learning Environments of Multiliteracies.

Pate, R. R. (2008). Physically active video gaming - An effective strategy for obesity  prevention? ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE, 162(9), 895–896.

Paw, M. J. M. C. A., Jacobs, W. M., Vaessen, E. P. G., Titze, S., & van Mechelen, W. (2008). The motivation of children to play an active video game. JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN SPORT, 11(2), 163–166.

Peachey, N., & Technology, L. (n.d.). Survey : Mobile learning for English language teachers.

Peacock, M. (2001). Pre-service ESL teachers’ beliefs about second language learning: a longitudinal study. System, 29(2), 177–195.

Pedersen, R. E. (2003). Game Design Foundations. Plano: Wordware Publishing, Inc.

Penko, A. L., & Barkley, J. E. (2010). Motivation and physiologic responses of playing a physically  interactive video game relative to a sedentary alternative in children. ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, 39(2), 162–169.

Perceptions of mobile language learning in Australia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 03, 2013, from http://journal.jaltcall.org/articles/8_3_Fujimoto.pdf

Peterson, M. (2008). Virtual Worlds in Language Education, 4(3), 29–37.

Peterson, M. (2009). Computerized Games and Simulations in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Research. Simulation & Gaming, 41(1), 72–93.

Peterson, M. (2012). Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis. ReCALL, 24(03), 361–380.

Petko, D. (2009). Unterrichten mit Computerspielen: Didaktische Potenziale und Ansätze für den gezielten Einsatz in Schule und Ausbildung. In J. &. P. D. Fromme (Ed.), Computerspiele und Videogames. Zürich: MedienPädagogik.

Pfannstiel, J., & Sänger, V. (2009). Game-based Learning im Bildungskontext einer Hochschule – ein Praxisbericht, (15).

Phakiti, A. (2003). A closer look at the relationship of cognitive and metacognitive strategy use to EFL reading achievement test performance. Language Testing, 20(1), 26–56.

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385–407.

Poels, K., Kort, Y. De, & Ijsselsteijn, W. (2012). IDENTIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION OF DIGITAL GAME EXPERIENCES : A QUALITATIVE STUDY INTEGRATING THEORETICAL INSIGHTS AND PLAYER IDENTIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION OF DIGITAL GAME EXPERIENCES : A QUALITATIVE STUDY INTEGRATING THEORETICAL INSIGHTS AND PLAYER. Westminster Papers, 9(1), 107–129.

Polio, C. (2007). Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. Cambridge Journals, 27(31), 133–160.

Prensky, M. (2007). Digital game-based learning. St. Paul, Minn.: McGraw-Hill.

Primack, B. A., Carroll, M. V, McNamara, M., Klem, M. Lou, King, B., Rich, M., … Nayak, S. (2012). Role of video games in improving health-related outcomes. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, 42(6), 630–638.

Project, E. L. (2005). Do you know me ? Do teacher attitudes towards gaming influence learning ? Author : Carol Marks, 1–2.

Prot, S., McDonald, K. A., Anderson, C. A., & Gentile, D. A. (2012). Video Games: Good, Bad, or Other? PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 59(3), 647+.

Purpura, J. E. (n.d.). An Analysis of the Relationships Between Test Takers ’ Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use and Second Language Test Performance, (June 1997), 289–325.

Purpura, J. E. (1999). Studies in Language Testing (pp. 1–227).

Purushotma, R. (2005). COMMENTARY : YOU ’ RE NOT STUDYING , YOU  ' RE JUST …, 9(1), 80–96.

Purushotma, R., Thorne, S. L., & Wheatley, J. (2009). 10 Key Principles for Designing Video Games for Foreign Language Learning. lingualgames.

Quinn, M. (2013). Introduction of Active Video Gaming Into the Middle School Curriculum as  a School-Based Childhood Obesity Intervention. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEALTH CARE, 27(1), 3–12.

Raby, R. (2010). Public Selves, Inequality, and Interruptions: The Creation of Meaning in Focus Groups with Teens. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 9(1), 1–15.

Rahimi, M., & Katal, M. (2012). Metacognitive strategies awareness and success in learning English as a foreign language: an overview. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31(2011), 73–81.

Rahmani, E., & Boren, S. A. (2012). Videogames and Health Improvement: A Literature Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Games for Health Journal, 1(5), 331–341.

Rama, P. S., Black, R. W., van Es, E., & Warschauer, M. (2012). Affordances for second language learning in World of Warcraft. ReCALL, 24(03), 322–338.

Ranalli, J. (2008a). Learning English with The Sims : exploiting authentic computer simulation games for L2 learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(5), 441–455.

Ranalli, J. (2008b). Learning English with The Sims: exploiting authentic computer simulation games for L2 learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(5), 441–455.

Ranalli, J. (2009). of Vocabulary Learning-Strategies via Web-Based Training, 27(1), 161–186.

Randall, S. (2012). Virtual Worlds for Language Learning: From Theory to Practice (Telecollaboration in Education) (p. 174). Peter Lang Pub Inc.

Rapeepisarn, K., Wong, K. W., Fung, C. C., & Khine, M. S. (2008). The relationship between game genres, learning techniques and learning styles in educational computer games. In A. Pan, Zhigeng;Zhang, Xiaopeng; EL Rhalibi (Ed.), Technologies for E-learning and Digital Entertainment (pp. 497–508). Berlin: Springer.

Ratan and Ritterfeld classify serious games in Chapter 2. (n.d.).

Razak, N. Z. A. (2000). Motivational factors and learners’ strategies in the English as a Second Language classroom at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia with special reference to computer assisted language learning. University of Stirling.

Razak, N. Z. A., Ismail, F., Aziz, A. A., & Babikkoi, M. A. (2012). Assessing the Use of English Language Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66, 240–246.

Read, J. (1988). Measuring the Vocabulary Knowledge of Second Langauge Learners. RELC Journal, 19(2), 12–25.

Reichart, S. (n.d.). Spiel-Entwicklung und Technologie Die verschiedenen Schritte in der Entwicklung eines Spiels I, (Bild 1).

Reinders, H. (Ed.). (n.d.). Digital Games in Language Learning and Teaching. Palgrave Macmillan.

Reinders, H. (2012a). Digital Games in Language Learning and Teaching (p. 232). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Reinders, H. (Ed.). (2012b). Digital Games in Language Learning and Teaching (p. 232). Palgrave Macmillan.

Reinders, H., & Wattana, S. (2011). Learn English or die : The effects of digital games on interaction and willingness to communicate in a foreign language. Digital Culture & Education, 3(1), 3–28.

Reinhardt, J. (n.d.). Negotiating meaningfulness: An enhanced perspective on interaction in computer-mediated foreign language learning environments (pp. 219–244).

Reinhardt, J. (2003). Un cor rec pro Joh n B enj am ins Pub lish ing pan y Un ted pro Joh n B enj am ins Pub lish ing Com y.

Reinhardt, J. (2012). Potentials for digital game-mediated foreign language teaching and learning. Fremdsprachen Und Hochschule, 85, 157–173.

Reinhardt, J., Assisted, C., Instructional, L., & Resources, E. (n.d.). CERCLL Games To Teach Project White Paper A meta-analysis of research frameworks in digital games and L2 teaching and learning Why games ? Meta-analyses in CALL Analyses in DGBL2TL Research synthesis Which studies ?, (2013).

Reinhardt, J., & Sykes, J. (2011). CERCLL Games To Teach Project White Paper Framework for Gameenhanced Materials Development. Framework for Game-enhanced Materials Development (p. 8).

Reinhardt, J., & Sykes, J. M. (2011a). Conceptualizing Digital Game-Mediated L2 Learning and Pedagogy, 1(Spring), 1–14.

Reinhardt, J., & Sykes, J. M. (2011b). game-enhanced or game-based, 1(Spring), 1–14.

Reinhardt, J., & Thorne, S. (n.d.). Chapter 9 Beyond Comparisons : Frameworks for Developing Digital L2 Literacies, 5–7.

Relationship, T., Aptitude, L., Motivation, L. L., & Differences, I. (2005). Zoltán Dörnyei, (Id).

Richards, J. C. (2008). Second Language Teacher Education Today. RELC Journal, 39(2), 158–177.

Riedel, J. (2012). Confirmed Workshop : Serious Games Integration / Adoption, (1984).

Ritterfeld, U. &. W. R. (2006). Video Games for Entertainment and Education. In P. &. B. J. Vorderer (Ed.), Playing video games. Motives, responses, and consequences., LEA’s communication series (pp. 399–413). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ritterfeld, U., & Cody, M. &. V. P. (Eds.). (2009). Serious games. Mechanisms and effects. New York: Routledge.

Ritterfeld, U., Cody, M., & Vorderer, P. (n.d.). Serious Games - Mechanisms and Effects Edited.

Ritterfeld, U., Cody, M., & Vorderer, P. (2009). Serious Games - Mechanisms and Effects (p. 530). New York: Routledge.

Rivers, W. P. (2001). Autonomy at All Costs: An Ethnography of Metacognitive Self-Assessment and Self-Management among Experienced Language Learners. The Modern Language Journal, 85(2), 279–290.

Roberts, L., & Siyanova-Chanturia, A. (2013). Using Eye-Tracking To Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35(02), 213–235.

Robertson, J. &. H. C. (2008). Computer game design: Opportunities for successful learning. Computers {&} Education, 50(2), 559–578.

Robertson, M. (2013). Can’t play, won’t play 1 06, (October 2010).

Roche, J. (2008). Handbuch Mediendidaktik - Fremdsprachen (3rd ed., p. 176). Ismaning: Hueber Verlag.

Roehr, K. (2004). Exploring the role of explicit knowledge in adult second language learning : language proficiency , pedagogical grammar and language learning strategies (No. 59) (Vol. 59, pp. 1–22).

Rogers, E. M., & Shoemaker, F. F. (1970). Communication of Innovations; A Cross-Cultural Approach.

Rollings, A. &. A. E. (2003). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design. Berkley, CA: New Riders.

Romero, M., & Usart, M. (n.d.). LEARNING THROUGH PLAYING FOR OR AGAINST EACH OTHER ? PROMOTING COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN DIGITAL GAME BASED LEARNING, 60–62.

Rosell-aguilar, F. (2013). PODCASTING FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING THROUGH iTUNES U : THE LEARNER ’ S VIEW, 2013(October), 74–93.

Rosenberg, D. (2008). The influence of video games on the scholarly and relational activity of  children: American study. ARCHIVES DE PEDIATRIE, 15(2), 226.

Rouse, R. I. (2004). Game Design Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). (R. I. Rouse, Ed.) (2nd ed.). Plano, TX: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Rubin, J. (1994). A Review of Second Language Listening Comprehension Research. The Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 199–221.

Rudestam, K. &. S.-R. J. (Ed.). (2010). Handbook of online learning (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks Calif.: SAGE Publications.

Ruggiero, D., & Loe, N. S. (n.d.). Video Games in the Classroom : The Teacher Point of View.

Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54–67.

Ryan, S., & Dornyei, Z. (n.d.). The long-term evolution of language motivation and the L2 self.

Ryan, S., & Mercer, S. (2012). Language Learning Mindsets Across Cultural Settings: English Learners in Japan. OnCUE Journal, 6(1), 6–22.

Şad, S. N., & Göktaş, Ö. (2013). Preservice teachers’ perceptions about using mobile phones and laptops in education as mobile learning tools. British Journal of Educational Technology, n/a–n/a.

Sagae, Alicia; Kumar, Rohit; Johnson, W. L. (n.d.). Scaling up in speaking proficiency by supporting robust learning behaviors. Los Angeles, CA 90066 USA; Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA.

Salen, K. &. Z. E. (2004). Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Salmon, G. (2009). The future for (second) life and learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 526–538.

Sardone, N. B., & Devlin-scherer, R. (2009). Teacher Candidates ’ Views of Digital Games as Learning Devices, 18(2).

Saridaki, M. (2009). Engaging students with intellectual disabilities through location based games.

Saunderson, R. (2011). Gamification utilizes the experience of fun, along with intrinsic motivation and rewards, to engage and captivate individual learners.

Sawyer, B. (2008). Taxonomy of Serious Games.

Schelhowe, H. (2006). 2. Digitale Medien in der Lebenswelt Jugendlicher, (Manovich 2001).

Schell, J. (2008). The art of game design : a book of lenses. Amsterdam ;Boston: Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann.

Schmidt, T. (2007). Gemeinsames Lernen mit Selbstlernsoftware im Englischunterricht (pp. 1–490). Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.

Schmidt-weigand, F., Kohnert, A., & Glowalla, U. (2010). Explaining the Modality and Contiguity Effects : New Insights From Investigating Students ’ Viewing Behaviour, 237(March 2009), 226–237.

Schneider, K. L., Ferrara, J., Lance, B., Karetas, A., Druker, S., Panza, E., … Pbert, L. (2012). Acceptability of an Online Health Videogame to Improve Diet and Physical Activity in Elementary School Students: “Fitter Critters.” Games for Health Journal, 1(4), 262–268.

Schoolenberg, M. A. (n.d.). Creating awareness among decision makers on land degradation and sustainable land management – a Farm System Analysis for the development of a computer game , in the Usambara Mountains of Tanzania, 1–6.

Schoonen, R. (n.d.). No Title, 48(1998), 71–106.

Schoonen, R., Gelderen, A. Van, Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M. (n.d.). First Language and Second Language Writing : The Role of Linguistic Knowledge , Speed of Processing , and Metacognitive Knowledge, (March 2003).

Schrader, P. G., Zheng, D., & Young, M. (2005). Teachers ’ Perceptions of Video Games : MMOGs and the Future of Preservice Teacher Education, (2004).

Schulze, M. (2003). Some Theoretical Insights, 20(3), 437–450.

Schwan, S. (2006). Game Based Learning – Computerspiele in der Hochschullehre (pp. 1–16).

Sellers, M. (2006). Designing the Experience of Interactive Play. In P. &. B. J. Vorderer (Ed.), Playing video games. Motives, responses, and consequences., LEA’s communication series (pp. 9–22). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Shandley, K., Austin, D., Klein, B., & Kyrios, M. (2010). An evaluation of “Reach Out Central”: an online gaming program for  supporting the mental health of young people. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH, 25(4), 563–574.

Shen, C., Wang, H., & Ute, R. (2009). Serious Games and Seriously Fun Games. In C. Shen, H. Wang, & R. Ute (Eds.), Serious games. Mechanisms and effects (pp. 48–61). New York: Routledge.

Shohamy, E. (2000). The relationship between language testing and second language acquisition, revisited. System, 28(4), 541–553.

Short, K. R., Hester, C. N., Pratt, L. V, & Graf, D. L. (2009). Active Video Games Promote an Increase in Energy Expenditure in Children  Similar to Standard Exercise. DIABETES, 58, A633.

Shudong, W., & Higgins, M. (2006). » REGULAR ARTICLES L imitations of Mobile Phone Learning, 2(1), 3–14.

Sicart, M. (2008). Defining Game Mechanics. Game Studies - the International Journal of Computer Game Research, 8(2), -.

Simons, M., Baranowski, J., Thompson, D., Buday, R., Abdelsamad, D., & Baranowski, T. (2013). Child Goal Setting of Dietary and Physical Activity in a Serious Videogame. Games for Health Journal, 2(3), 150–157.

Simons, M., de Vet, E., Hoornstra, S., Brug, J., Seidell, J., & Chinapaw, M. (2012). Adolescents’ Views on Active and Non-Active Videogames: A Focus Group Study. Games for Health Journal, 1(3), 211–218.

Simons, M., Vet, E., Hoornstra, S., Brug, J., Seidell, J., & Chinapaw, M. (2012). Adolescents’ Views on Active and Non-Active Videogames: A Focus Group Study. Games for Health Journal, 1(3), 211–218.

Šisler, V., Brom, C., Cuhra, J., Činátl, K., & Gemrot, J. (n.d.). Stories from the History of Czechoslovakia , a serious game for teaching history of the Czech lands in the 20th century – notes on design concepts and design process.

Sit, C. H. P. F., Lam, J. W. K., & McKenzie, T. L. (2010). Direct Observation of Children’s Preferences and Activity Levels During  Interactive and Online Electronic Games. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, 7(4), 484–489.

Sitzmann, T. (2011). A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Instructional Effectiveness of Computer-Based Simulation Games. Personnel Psychology, 64(2), 489–528.

Smet, C. De, Bourgonjon, J., Wever, B. De, Schellens, T., & Valcke, M. (2012). Researching instructional use and the technology acceptation of Learning Management Systems by secondary school teachers Please cite as : Corresponding author : Researching instructional use and the technology acceptation of Learning Management Systems by, 1–22.

Smith, L., & Mann, S. (2002). Playing the Game : A Model for Gameness in Interactive Game Based Learning. In Proceedings of the 15 th Annual NACCQ (pp. 397–402). Hamilton, New Zealand.

Snow, B., Feeley, C., Haas, J. M., Stidwill, P., McCool, D., & Osterweil, S. (2013). Dancing (and Wrestling) with Learning Objectives and Game Machanics. GLS 9.0, 19–25.

Solhi, M. (2011). 1st International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics Self-perception of Non-native Speaker Teacher of English in the Expanding 1st International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics May 5-7 2011 Sara, (1992), 853–859.

Song, M.; Zhang, S. (2008). EFM: A model for educational game design. In A. Pan, Zhigeng;Zhang, Xiaopeng; EL Rhalibi (Ed.), Technologies for E-learning and Digital Entertainment (pp. 509–517). Berlin: Springer.

Sørensen, B. H., & Meyer, B. (2007). Serious Games in language learning and teaching – a theoretical perspective. In Situated Play, The Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference (pp. 559–566). Copenhagen.

Specht, M. &. E. M. (2011). Mobiles und ubiquitäres Lernen - Technologien und didaktischen Aspekte. (M. &. E. M. Specht, Ed.). Bad Reichenhall.

Squire, K. (2005). Changing the Game: What Happens When Video Games Enter the Classroom? Journal of Online Education, 1(6), 1–20.

Squire, K. &. J. H. (2002). Harnessing the power of games in education. Insight, 3(1), 5–33.

Squire, K. D. (2006). From content to context: Videogames as designed experiences. Educational Researcher, 35(8), 19–29.

Squire, K. D. (2013). Video Game – Based Learning : An Emerging Paradigm for Instruction. University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education, 21(2), 7–36.

Squire, K. D. &. M. J. (2007). Mad City Mystery: Developing Scientific Argumentation Skills with a Place-based Augmented Reality Game on Handheld Computers. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16(1), 5–29.

Squire, K., Jenkins, H., Holland, W., Miller, H., O’Driscoll, A., Tan, K. P., & Todd, K. (2003). Design Principles of Next-Generation Digital Gaming for Education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43(5), 17–23.

Staiano, A. E., Abraham, A. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2012). The Wii Club: Gaming for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Youth. Games for Health Journal, 1(5), 377–380.

Starkloff, A. (2010). Lernen in virtuellen Welten Untersuchungen zur Integration und Akzeptanz.

Steinkuehler, C. &. C. M. (2006). Fostering scientific habits of mind in the context of online play.

Stepp-greany, J. (2002). STUDENT PERCEPTIONS ON LANGUAGE LEARNING IN A TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT :, 6(January), 165–180.

Stockwell, G. (2013). Technology and Motivation in English-Language Teaching and Learning. In International Perspectives on Motivation (pp. 156–175). Palgrave Macmillan.

Studies, A., Haji, S., & Hamedani, H. (2013). The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Self- Regulation in Vocabulary Acquisition of Iranian EFL Learners. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 3(January), 20–31.

Sumbling, M., Sanz, P., Viladrich, M. C., Doval, E., & Riera, L. (2007). Development of a Multiple-Component CAT for Measuring Foreign Language Proficiency (SIMTEST) (pp. 1–13). Barcelona.

Swan, M. (2005). Legislation by hypothesis: The case of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 26(3), 376–401.

Swedish-speaking, T. (1988). Computer games and foreign- language vocabulary learning RolfPalm berg, 42(December 1986), 247–252.

Sweetser, P., & Wyeth, P. (2005). GameFlow : A Model for Evaluating Player Enjoyment in Games, 3(3), 1–24.

Sykes, J. M., Oskoz, A., & Thorne, S. L. (2008). Web 2.0, Synthetic Immersive Environments, and Mobile Resources for Language Education. CALICO Journal, 25(3), 528–546.

Sykes, J. M., & Reinhardt, J. (2012). Language at Play: Digital Games in Second and Foreign Language Teaching and Learning (Theory and Practice in Second Language Classroom Instruction). (J. Liskin-Gasparro & M. Lacorte, Eds.) (1st ed., p. 176). New York: Pearson Education, Instock.

Sykes, J. M., & Reinhardt J. & Thorne, S. L. (2010). Multiuser digital gaming as sites for research and practice. In F. Hult (Ed.), Directions and Prospects for Educational Linguistics (pp. 1–32). New York: Springer.

Sykes, J. M., Reinhardt, J., & Thorne, S. L. (2010). Multiuser Digital Games as Sites for Research and Practice. In Directions and Prospects for Educational Linguistics (pp. 117–135). New York: Springer.

Sykes, J., Reinhardt, J., Games, D., Teaching, F. L., & York, N. (n.d.). No Title.

Sylvén, L. K., & Sundqvist, P. (2012). Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners. ReCALL, 24(03), 302–321.

Tai, Y. (2011). Adoption of mobile technology for language learning : Teacher attitudes and challenges, 7(1), 3–18.

Teacher Self-Efficacy of Graduate Teaching Assistants of French Teacher Self-Efficacy of Graduate Teaching Assistants of French. (2007), (January).

Technology, E. (2012). January 2012 Volume 15 Number 1, 15(1).

Tekin, M. (2013). An Investigation into Novice English Teachers’ Views and Beliefs about Method and Post - method Pedagogy in Turkish EFL Context. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 4(4), 55–69.

Teo, T., Lee, C. B., & Chai, C. S. (2007). Understanding pre-service teachers’ computer attitudes: applying and extending the technology acceptance model. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(2), 128–143.

The Pedagogies in Game Based Learning: A Case Study of Teacher Attitudes & Perceptions. (n.d.).

The RM READING PROFICIENCY, READING STRATEGIES,METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS AND L2 READERS by Meena Singhal. (n.d.).

Thiele, J. (2000). Das Bilderbuch - Ästhetik,, Theorie, Analyse, Didaktik, Rezeption.

Thilmany, J. (2011). Girls and Video Games: Playing For Mental Health . MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, 133(4), 16.

Thomas, M. (2011). Editorial : Digital games and second language acquisition in Asia, 3(1), 1–3.

Thompson, D., Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Baranowski, J., Thompson, V., Jago, R., & Griffith, M. J. (2010). Serious video games for health: How behavioral science guided  the development of a serious video game. Simulation & Gaming, 41(4), 587–606.

Thorne, S. L. (2003). ARTIFACTS AND CULTURES-OF-USE IN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION, 7(2), 38–67.

Thorne, S. L. &. P. J. S. (2005). Evolutionary Trajectories, Internetmediated Expression, and Language Education. CALICO Journal, 22(3), 371–398.

Thorne, S. L., Black, R. W., & Sykes, J. M. (2001). Second Language Use , Socialization , and Learning in Internet Interest Communities and Online Gaming.

Thorne, S. L., Fischer, I., & Lu, X. (2012). The semiotic ecology and linguistic complexity of an online game world. ReCALL, 24(03), 279–301.

Thornton, P. &. H. C. (2003). Using mobile web and video phones in English language teaching: Projects with Japanese college students. In B. Morrison & C. &. M. G. Green (Eds.), Directions in CALL: Experience, experiments {&} evaluation (pp. 207–224). Hong Kong: English Language Centre.

Thornton, P. &. H. C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English Education in Japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, (21), 217–228.

Tjettmers, S., Marek, M., Homberg, G., & Sander, W. (2008). Didaktische Gestaltung von Blended Learning in der Hochschule. In E-Learning-Management (pp. 111–131). Verlag Vahlen.

Topcu, A. (2008). The Effects of Metacognitive Knowledge on the Pre-service Teachers ’ Participation in the Asynchronous Online Forum. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 1–12.

Topkaya, E. Z. E. H. İ. R. (2010). PRE-SERVICE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS ’ PERCEPTIONS OF COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY AND GENERAL SELF-EFFICACY, 9(1), 143–156.

Torrente, J. M.-G. P. &. F.-M. B. (2008). Learning models for the integration of adaptive educational games in virtual learning environments. In Z. Pan, Z. Zhang, A. El Rhalibi, & W. &. L. Y. Woo (Eds.), Technologies for E-learning and Digital Entertainment (pp. 463–474). Berlin: Springer.

Translations, E. (n.d.). English Learner Questionnaire.

Tseng, W.-T. (2006). A New Approach to Assessing Strategic Learning: The Case of Self-Regulation in Vocabulary Acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 27(1), 78–102.

Tuncer, C. (2009). Learning and Teaching Languages Online: a Constructivist Approach. Novitas-ROYAL, 3(1), 60–74.

Turba, K., & Henderson, M. H.-. (n.d.). No Title, 1–8.

Turgut, Y. &. İ. P. (2009). Young learners’ language learning via computer games. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 760–764.

Tuzun, H. Y. M. K. T. I. Y. &. K. G. (2009). The effects of computer games on primary school students’ achievement and motivation in geography learning. Computers {&} Education, 52(1), 68–77.

Tüzün, H., Yılmaz-Soylu, M., Karakuş, T., İnal, Y., & Kızılkaya, G. (2009, January). The effects of computer games on primary school students’ achievement and motivation in geography learning. Computers & Education.

Ulicsak, M., Facer, K., & Sandford, R. (2007). Issues impacting games ­ based learning in formal secondary education. Journal Advanced Technology for Learning, 4(4), 212–217.

Unnithan, V. B., Houser, W., & Fernhall, B. (2006). Evaluation of the energy cost of playing a dance simulation video game  in overweight and non-overweight children and adolescents. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, 27(10), 804–809.

Use, S., & Distance, I. N. (1993). Pergamon LANGUAGE LEARNING : RESEARCH FINDINGS, (95), 207–221.

Ushioda, E. (2013). International Perspectives on Motivation: Language Learning and Professional Challenges (International Perspectives on English Language Teaching). Palgrave Macmillan.

Ushioda, E. M. A. (1967). Motivation , Language Identities and the L2 Self : A Theoretical Overview, 1–8.

Ushioda, E., & Theory, S. (2013). MOTIVATION MATTERS IN MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING :, (October), 1–5.

Uzun, L. (2009). AN EVALUATIVE CHECKLIST FOR COMPUTER GAMES USED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY LEARNING AND PRACTICE: VOCAWORD SAMPLE Levent UZUN *, 3(1), 45–59.

Uzun, L., Çetinavcı, U. R., Korkmaz, S., & Salihoğlu, U. M. (2013). Developing and applying a foreign language vocabulary learning and practice game : The effect of VocaWord, 5(1).

V. Trosborg, A. (2010). Pragmatics across Languages and Cultures. (W. Bublitz, A. H. Jucker, & K. P. Schneider, Eds.) (p. 644). Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton.

Vandergrift, L. (n.d.). Orchestrating Strategy Use : Toward a Model of the Skilled Second Language Listener, (September 2003), 463–496.

Vandergrift, L., & Goh, C. C. M. (n.d.). Book Reviews Teaching and Learning Second Language Listening : Metacognition in Action, (Chapter 7), 166–168.

Vandergrift, L., Goh, C. C. M., Mareschal, C. J., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (n.d.-a). The Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire : Development and Validation, (September 2006), 431–463.

Vandergrift, L., Goh, C. C. M., Mareschal, C. J., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (n.d.-b). The Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire : Development and Validation, (September 2006), 431–462.

Vandergrift, L., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2010). Teaching L2 Learners How to Listen Does Make a Difference: An Empirical Study. Language Learning, 60(2), 470–497.

Venuti, I. (n.d.). Metalinguistic knowledge and language proficiency, 1–11.

Vesselinov, & Grego. (2012). Duolingo Effectiveness Study, (December).

Victori, M., & Lockhart, W. (1995). ENHANCING METACOGNITION IN SELF-DIRECTED LANGUAGE LEARNING. System, 23(2), 223–234.

Video Game-Based Training improves Coordination and Balance in Children. (2012). FORTSCHRITTE DER NEUROLOGIE PSYCHIATRIE, 80(12), 680.

Vlachos, K. (n.d.). The Potential of Information Communication Technologies ( ICT ) in Content and Language Integrated Learning ( CLIL ): The Case of English as a Second / Foreign Language Kosmas Vlachos Hellenic Open University ( Greece ) Abstract, (Clil), 189–198.

Vogt, K. (2000). Fremdsprachenlernen mit dem Internet : Untersuchung zum lernfördernden Potenzial des Internet bei der Einbindung in einen lernerautonomisierenden Fremdsprachenunterricht bei Erwachsenen. Universität Bielefeld.

Vol, T. Q. (1995). On the Teachability of. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 55–85.

Volume, A., Teachers, O. C., Efl, S., Teachers, S., & Teaching, G. (2012). Arab World English Journal, (4), 160–178.

Vorderer, P. &. B. J. (Ed.). (2006). Playing video games. Motives, responses, and consequences., LEA’s communication series. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Vorderer, P., & Bryant, J. (2006). Playing video games: Motives, responses, and consequences (p. 464). Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Inc.

Vorgehen, M. (n.d.). U Onlinenutzung von Kindern und Jugendlichen im europäischen Vergleich.

Vulliamy, G., Kimonen, E., Nevalainen, R., & Webb, R. (1997). Teacher Identity and Curriculum Change: A comparative case-study analysis of small schools in England and Finland. Comparative Education, 33(1), 97–116.

Wagner, M. (2008). Interaktionstechnologie im gesellschaftlichen Spiel. In K. &. R. H. Mitgutsch (Ed.), Faszination Computerspielen. Theorie - Kultur -- Erleben (pp. 47–55). Wien: Braumüller.

Wagner, M. (2012). Smart Mobile Apps, 559–570.

Wallenius, M., Rimpela, A., Punamaki, R.-L., & Lintonen, T. (2009). Digital game playing motives among adolescents: Relations to  parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(4), 463–474.

Wang, M.-T. (2009). EFFECTS OF METACOGNITIVE READING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION ON EFL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION, READING STRATEGIES AWARENESS, AND READING MOTIVATION (pp. 1–253). Min-Tzu Wang.

Warburton, D. E. R., Bredin, S. S. D., Horita, L. T. L., Zbogar, D., Scott, J. M., Esch, B. T. A., & Rhodes, R. E. (2007). The health benefits of interactive video game exercise. APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY NUTRITION AND METABOLISM-PHYSIOLOGIE APPLIQUEE  NUTRITION ET METABOLISME, 32(4), 655–663.

Ware, P. (2005). “ MISSED ” COMMUNICATION IN ONLINE COMMUNICATION : TENSIONS IN A GERMAN-AMERICAN TELECOLLABORATION, 9(2), 64–89.

Warner, C. N. (2004). IT ’ S JUST A GAME , RIGHT ? TYPES OF PLAY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CMC, 8(2), 69–87.

Warschauer, M. (2012). Computer Assisted Language Learning: an Introduction.

Warschauer, M., & Healey, D. (1998). Computers and language learning: an overview. Language Teaching, 31(02), 57–71.

Wastiau, P., Kearney, C., & Van den Berghe, W. (2009). How are digital games used in schools? (pp. 1–174). Brussels.

Wattanasoontorn, V. (n.d.). LISSA : A Serious Game to learn Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

Watzke, J. L. (2007). Foreign Language Pedagogical Knowledge: Toward a Developmental Theory of Beginning Teacher Practices. The Modern Language Journal, 91(1), 63–82.

Weber, J., & Bresges, A. (2012). HellGoLand : Ein Serious Game für den Einsatz im ZdI- Schülerlabor ” Unser Raum- schiff Erde ”, 1–7.

Weidenmann, B. (2002). Multicodierung und Multimod alität im Lernprozess. In Information und Lernen mit Multimedia und Internet (pp. 45–62). Weinheim: Issing/Klimsa.

Weisshaupt, M., & Hildebrandt, E. (2013). Die Bildung und die Games. Schulpädagogik Heute, H. 7(Digitale Medien und Schule), 1–9.

Wenden, A. L. (1995). Metacognitive Knowledge and Language, 515–537.

Werbach, K. (2012). For the win : how game thinking can revolutionize your business (p. 144). Philadelphia, Pa.: Wharton Digital Pr.

Westera, W. N. R. H. H. &. W. I. (2008). Serious games for higher education: a framework for reducing design complexity. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(5), 420–432.

Wetzsteon, R. J., Swanson, K. S., Pickett, K., Golner, S., Stovitz, S. D., & Petit, M. A. (2006). Energy Expenditure and Ground Reaction Forces of an Active Video Game,  Dance Dance Revolution, in Healthy Weight and Overweight Children. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 38(5, S), S255.

Whitton, N. (2007). Motivation and computer game based learning. Singapore.

Wiemeyer, J. (n.d.). Gaming for Health - Serious Games in Prevention and Rehabilitation. DEUTSCHE ZEITSCHRIFT FUR SPORTMEDIZIN, 61(11), 252–257.

Wigham, C. R., Chanier, T., & Université, C. (2013). Architecture students ’ appropriation of avatars – relationships between avatar identity and L2 verbal participation and interaction 1 Introduction 2 Identity overview.

Wilkerson, A. B. (2010). ELECTRATE LANGUAGE LEARNING : AN ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS by, (May).

Williams, C. C., Ochsner, A., Dietmeier, J., & Steinkuehler, C. (Eds.). (2013). GAMES + LEARNING + SOCIETY CONFERENCE. In GLS 9.0 (p. 615). Madison, Wisconsin.

Wissenserwerb im Content and Language Integrated Learning von Hans Badertscher; Thomas Bieri - Fachbuch - buecher.de. (n.d.).

Wissensvermittlung, F. Der, & Learning, G. B. (2004). Game Based Learning & Edutainment.

Wlodarczyk, M. S. (2013). Perceptions of video games in education by PK-12 Public School  administrators in Connecticut.

Wojtowicz, L., Stansfield, M., Connolly, T., & Hainey, T. (1990). The Impact of ICT and Games Based Learning on Content and Language Integrated Learning, 1–5.

Wolff, D. (1976). in einer oder mehrerer dieser Disziplinen führte – zwangsläufig, möchte man sagen – auch zu einem neuen fremdsprachendidaktischen Modell, das sich – in gebührendem zeitlichem Abstand zur der Veränderung im Paradigma der Bezugswissenschaft – bei einem neue.

Wolff, D. (2002). Fremdsprachenlernen als Konstruktion: Einige Anmerkungen zu einem viel diskutierten neuen Ansatz in der Fremdsprachendidaktik.

Wong, C. Y., Fehr, M. C., Agnello, M. F., & Crooks, S. M. (2012). ESL Teacher Candidates’ Perceptions of Readiness to Teach English Language Learners. The Journal of Multiculturalism in Education, 8(October), 22.

Wong, L. L. C., & Nunan, D. (2011). The learning styles and strategies of effective language learners. System, 39(2), 144–163.

Woolf, B., Aimeur, E., & Nkambou, R. &. L. S. (2008). Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 9th International Conference, ITS 2008. (B. Woolf, E. Aimeur, & R. &. L. S. Nkambou, Eds.) (2008th ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Wouters, D. P., & Oostendorp, D. H. van. (2013). Confirmed Lecture - When are serious games really effective ?

Woytak, L., Abraham, R. G., Vann, R. J., Cohen, A. D., Oxford, R. L., & Chapelle, C. A. (1996). Employing a Questionnaire to Assess the Use of Language Learning Strategies. Applied Language Learning, 7(1&2), 28–47.

Wray, A. (2000). Ecological perspectives on foreign language education. http://applij.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/4/463.full.pdf+html, 21(4), 463–489.

Yang, N.-D. (1999). The relationship between EFL learners’ beliefs and learning strategy use. System, 27(4), 515–535.

Yeşİlyurt, E. (2013). Academic Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Teacher Candidates, 3(1), 93–103.

Yien, J., & Lin, Y. (2011). A GAME-BASED LEARNING APPROACH TO IMPROVING STUDENTS ’, 10(2), 1–10.

Young, M. F., Slota, S., Cutter, a. B., Jalette, G., Mullin, G., Lai, B., … Yukhymenko, M. (2012). Our Princess Is in Another Castle: A Review of Trends in Serious Gaming for Education. Review of Educational Research, 82(1), 61–89.

Zaharias, P. (n.d.). Hedonic and Pragmatic Qualities as Predictors for Motivation to Learn in Serious Educational Games.

Zhang, L. J. (2009). Chinese senior high school EFL students’ metacognitive awareness and reading-strategy use, 21(1), 37–59.

Zheng, D., Newgarden, K., & Young, M. F. (2012). Multimodal analysis of language learning in World of Warcraft play: Languaging as Values-realizing. ReCALL, 24(03), 339–360.

 Zhu, C. (2011). Online collaborative learning: Cultural differences in student satisfaction and performance. Journal for Educational Research Online, 3(1), 12–28.

Zhu, C., Valcke, M., & Schellens, T. (2009). Cultural differences in the perception of a social-constructivist e-learning environment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 164–168.

Zichermann, G., & Cunningham, C. (n.d.). Gamification by Design; Implementing Game Mechanics iN web and Mobile Apps.

Ziehe, T. (2000). Debate article: School and youth -- a differential relation. Reflections on some blank areas in the current reform discussions. Young, 8(1), 54–63.

Ziehe, T. (2000). School and Youth -- A Differntial Relation. Young, 8(1), 54–63.